法 句 經
English translated by Ācharya Buddharakkhita
Chinese translated by Yeh chün(葉均)
Chinese commented by Bhikkhu Metta(明法比丘)
法 句 經
English translated by Ācharya Buddharakkhita
Chinese translated by Yeh chün(葉均)
Chinese commented by Bhikkhu Metta(明法比丘)
這個版本，英文的部份取自Ācharya Buddharakkhita(佛護)的The Dhammapada，中文《法句經》偈誦為了參法師(1916~1985葉均)所翻譯的，注釋部分，我重新作注，參考一些書，特別是參考《法句經注》(Dhammapada-aṭṭhakā)，增加許多濃縮的故事，以提昇可讀性。
Homage to Him, the Blessed One, the Perfected One, the Supremely Enlightened One!
1.Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought. If with an impure mind a person speaks or acts, suffering follows him like the wheel that follows the foot of the ox.
2. Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind wrought. If with a pure mind a person speaks or acts, happiness follows him like his never-departing shadow.
3. “He abused me, he struck me, he overpowered me, he robbed me”. Those who harbour such thoughts do not still their hatred.
4. “He abused me, he struck me, he overpowered me, he robbed me”. Those who do not harbour such thoughts still their hatred.
5. Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. By non-hatred alone is hatred appeased. This is an Eternal Law.
wrought：a.作成的、精製的。abuse：v. n. 辱罵、虐待。overpower：v.
〈3 ~ 4〉
6. There are those who do not realize that one day we all must die. But those who realize this settle their quarrels.
7. Just as a storm throws down a weak tree, so does Māra overpower the man who lives for the pursuit of pleasures, who is uncontrolled in his senses, immoderate in eating, indolent and dissipated.
8. Just as a storm cannot prevail against a rocky mountain, so Māra can never overpower the man who lives meditating on the impurities, who is controlled in his senses, moderate in eating, and filled with faith and earnest effort.
9. Whoever being depraved, devoid of self-control and truthfulness, should don the monk’s yellow robe, he surely is not worthy of the robe.
10. But whoever is purged of depravity, well established in virtues and filled with self-control and truthfulness, he indeed is worthy of the yellow robe.
quarrel：n. 爭吵、不和。 Māra：n. 魔。 indolent：a. 懶惰的。
dissipate：v. 驅散、消失。 prevail：v. 勝過。
The impurities (asubha): n. 不淨觀。deprave：v. 使敗壞、使墮落。
depravity：n. 墮落。 purge：v. 淨化。 virtue：n. 戒律、道德。
〈7 ~ 8〉
〈9 ~ 10〉
11. Those who mistake the unessential to be essential and the essential to be unessential dwelling in wrong thoughts, never arrive at the essential.
12. Those who know the essential to be essential and the unessential to be unessential, dwelling in right thoughts, do arrive at the essential.
13. Just as the rain breaks through an ill-thatched house, so passion penetrates an undeveloped mind.
14. Just as rain does not break through a well-thatched house, so passion never penetrates a well-developed mind.
15. The evil-doer grieves here and hereafter; he grieves in both worlds. He laments and is afflicted, recollecting his own impure deeds.
thatched：a. 茅草蓋的。 grieve：n. 悲傷。lament：悲嘆。 afflict：折磨。
〈11 ~ 12〉
〈13 ~ 14〉
16. The doer of good rejoices here and hereafter; he rejoices in both worlds. He rejoices and exults, recollecting his own pure deeds.
17. The evil-doer suffers here and hereafter; they suffer in both worlds. The thought, “Evil have I done,” torments them, and he suffers even more when gone to realms of woe.
18. The doer of good delights here and hereafter; he delights in both worlds. The thought, “Good have I done,” delights him, and he delights even more when gone to realms of bliss.
19. Much though he recites the sacred texts, but acts not accordingly, that heedless man is like a cowherd who only counts the cows of others -- he does not partake of the blessings of a holy life.
20. Little though he recites the sacred texts, but puts the Teaching into practice, forsaking lust, hatred and delusion, with true wisdom and emancipated mind, clinging to nothing this or any other world -- he, indeed, partakes of the blessings of a holy life.
rejoice：n. 欣喜。 exult：n. 狂喜。torment：n. 痛苦。 realm：n. 領土、界。
woe：n. 悲哀。 heedless：不專心。sacred：a. 神聖的。 cowherd：n. 牧牛者。 partake：a.分享的。forsaking︰a. 拋棄的。emancipated︰解脫的。
〈19 ~ 20〉
4經集：DhA：saṁhitanti tepiṭakassa buddhavacanassetaṁ nāmaṁ.(經集：這 是佛說的三藏之名。)
5 沙門分︰bhāgavā sāmaññassa，沙門的成分，指沙門的利益：道與果。
21. Heedfulness is the path to the deathless. Heedlessness is the path to death. The heedful die not. The heedless are as if already dead.
22. Clearly understanding this excellence of heedfulness, the wise exult therein and enjoy the resort of the Noble One.
23. The wise ones, ever meditative and steadfastly persevering, alone experience Nibbāna, the incomparable freedom from bondage.
24. Ever grows the glory of him who is energetic, mindful and pure in conduct, discerning and self-controlled, righteous and heedful.
25. By effort and heedfulness, discipline and self-mastery, let the wise one make for himself an island which no flood can overwhelm.
The Deathless (amata)︰無死(=涅槃)。 The Noble Ones (ariya)︰四聖諦。
exult︰v.歡欣。 steadfastly︰adv.踏實地、不變地。 persevering︰a.堅忍的。
〈21 ~ 23〉
 不死道：amatapadaṁ，涅槃的一種名稱。《相應部》〈無為相應〉提到三十二種涅槃的別名之一‘amata’。DhA.CS:pg.1.103.︰Amatapadanti amataṁ vuccati nibbānaṁ.(不死的路：「不死」被叫做「涅槃」。)
2 死路：maccu (death死)。
3 奮勉：DhA：uṭṭhānavatoti uṭṭhānavīriyavantassa.(奮起：奮起的英雄本色。)
4 淨行：DhA：Sucikammassāti niddosehi niraparādhehi kāyakammādīhi samannāgatassa.(淨業： 已被無為難的、無違犯的身業等俱行。)
5 不為洪水沒：智者以法與律作為依止，不為煩惱(喻作：洪水)所淹沒。DhA：「洪水為四種污染(catubbidhopi kilesogho)」。四洪水(cattāro oghā)就是四漏(四流向, 4 āsavā<(ā向﹑從…+su(梵sru)流動))。
6 有一天，名醫耆婆(Jīvako)邀請佛陀和眾多比丘到他家接受供養，但是周利槃特(Cūḷapanthako)除外。周利槃特十分沮喪。佛陀明白他的心意後，就給他一塊布，要他一邊搓揉布塊，一邊複誦「去除污垢，去除污垢。」(‘rajoharaṇaṁ rajoharaṇan’ti)佛陀離開後，周利槃特努力搓揉布塊，並複誦「去除污垢」，不久，布變髒了，這時候他了解到無常。佛陀就以神通力出現在他的面前，說：「不只是布因污垢而變髒，人心也有污垢，去除污垢，才能證果。」他繼續用功，不久就證得阿羅漢果。
26. The foolish and ignorant indulge in heedlessness, but the wise one keeps his heedfulness as his best treasure.
27. Do not give way to heedlessness. Do not indulge in sensual pleasures. Only the heedful and meditative attain great happiness.
28. Just as one upon the summit of a mountain beholds the groundlings, even so when the wise man casts away heedlessness by heedfulness and ascends the high tower of wisdom, this sorrowless sage beholds the sorrowing and foolish multitude.
29. Heedful among the heedless, wide-awake among the sleepy, the wise man advances like a swift horse leaving behind a weak jade.
30. By heedfulness did Indra become the overlord of the gods. Heedfulness is ever praised, and heedlessness ever despised.
indulge︰v. 沈迷，放縱自己。 treasure︰n. 寶藏。 summit︰n. 峰頂。
ascends︰v. 登高。 sage︰聖者。 behold︰v. 看。 multitude︰n. 大眾。
swift︰a. 快速的、立刻的。 jade︰n. 1.玉。2.駑馬。overlord︰最高統治者。 despised︰v. 鄙視。Indra: the ruler of the gods in ancient Indian mythology. (因陀羅︰古印度神的統領者。) overlord︰n. 最高統治者。 despise︰v. 鄙視。
〈26 ~ 27〉
31. The monk who delights in heedfulness and looks with fear at 31. The monk who delights in heedfulness and looks with fear at heedlessness advances like fire, burning all fetters small and large.
32. The monk who delights in heedfulness and looks with fear at heedlessness will not fall. He is close to Nibbāna.
33. Just as a fletcher straightens an arrow shaft, even so the discerning man straightens his mind -- so fickle and unsteady, so difficult to guard and control.
34. As a fish when pulled out of water and cast on land throbs and quivers, even so is this mind agitated. Hence should one abondon the realm of Māra.
35. Wonderful, indeed, it is to subdue the mind, so difficult to subdue, ever swift, and seizing whatever it desires. A tamed mind brings happiness.
delights︰n. 愉快。 fetters︰n.束縛。 fletcher︰n. 造箭者。shaft︰n. 箭桿。discerning︰v. 分辨。fickle︰a. 易變的，無常的。throbs︰v. 戰慄。
〈33 ~ 34〉
3 出生在舍衛城附近的小村莊的尼迦瑪西提舍長老(Nigamavāsitissa- tthero)，出家後過著簡單的生活，有時其他比丘會誤會他的行為，如避開大型會。佛陀則讚嘆他少欲知足，說此偈。
36. Let the discerning man guard the mind, so difficult to detect and extremely subtle, seizing whatever it desires. A guarded mind brings happiness.
37. Dwelling in the cave (of the heart), the mind without form, wanders far and alone. Those who subdue this mind are liberated from the bonds of Māra.
38. Wisdom never becomes perfect in one whose mind is not steadfast, who knows not the Good Teaching and whose faith wavers.
39. There is no fear for an Awakened One, whose mind is not sodden (by lust) nor afflicted (by hate), and who has gone beyond both merit and demerit.
40. Realizing that this body is as fragile as a clay pot, and fortifying this mind like a well-fortified city, fight out Māra with the sword of wisdom. Then, guarding the conquest, remain unattached.
extremely︰adv. 極端。 liberate︰v. 解脫，釋放。 waver︰v. 動搖。
sodden︰v. 使迷糊，使浸透。 fortify︰v. 築防禦工事於，增強。
〈38 ~ 39〉
41. Ere long, alas! this body will lie upon the earth, unheeded and lifeless, like a useless log.
42. Whatever harm an enemy may do to an enemy, or a hater to a hater, an ill-directed mind inflicts on oneself a greater harm.
43. Neither mother, father, nor any other relative can do one greater good than his own well-directed mind.
44. Who shall overcome this earth, the realm of Yama and this sphere of men and gods? Who shall bring to perfection the well-taught path of wisdom as an expert garland-maker would a floral design?
45. The Striver-on-the-Path shall overcome this earth, the realm of Yama and this sphere of men and gods. The striver-on-the-path shall bring to perfection the well-taught path of wisdom, as an expert garland-maker would a floral design.
ere︰conj. 在...以前。 inflict︰給予(打擊)，使遭受。 floral︰花的。 The striver-on-the-path︰須陀洹道，不是原文‘Sekho’「有學」(belonging to training)的正確翻譯。Yama,【陽】閻摩(死亡王國的統治者)( the ruler of the kingdom of the dead)。
〈44 ~ 45〉
46. Realizing that this body is like froth, penetrating its mirage-like nature, and plucking out Māra’s flower-tipped arrows (of sensuality), go beyond sight of the King of Death!
47. As a mighty flood sweeps away the sleeping village, so death carry away the person of distracted mind who only plucks the flowers (of pleasure).
48. The Destroyer brings under his sway the person of distracted mind who, insatiate in sense desires, only plucks the flowers (of pleasure).
49. As a bee gathers honey from the flower without injuring its colour or fragrance, even so the sage goes on alms-rounds in the village.
50. Let none find fault with others; let none see the omissions and commissions of others. But let one see his own acts, done and undone.
froth︰n. v. 泡沫。 mirage︰n. 海市蜃樓。 pluck︰v. 摘。
sway︰v. 動搖。 fragrance︰n. 芬芳。
51. Like a beautiful flower full of colour but without fragrance, even so, fruitless are the fair words of one who does not practice them.
52. Like a beautiful flower full of colour and also fragrant, even so, fruitful are the fair words of one who practices them.
53. As from a great heap of flowers many garlands can be made, even so should many good deeds be done by one born a mortal.
54. Not the sweet smell of flowers, not even the fragrance of sandal, tagara or jasmine blows against the wind. But the fragrance of the virtuous blows against the wind. Truly, virtuous pervades all directions with the fragrance of his virtue.
55.Of all the fragrances -- sandal, tagara, blue lotus and jasmine -- the fragrance of virtue is by far the sweetest.
56. Faint is the fragrance of tagara and sandal, but the fragrance of the virtuous is excellent, wafting even among the gods.
57. Māra never finds the path of the truly virtuous, who abide in heedfulness and are freed by perfect knowledge.
〈51 ~ 52〉
58. Upon a heap of rubbish in the road-side ditch blooms a lotus, fragrant and pleasing.
59. Even so, on the rubbish heap of blinded mortals the disciple of the Supremely Enlightened One shines resplendent in wisdom.
60. Long is the night to the sleepless; long is the league to the weary. Long is worldly existence to fools who know not the Sublime Truth.
61. Should a seeker not find a companion who is better or equal, let him resolutely pursue a solitary course; there is no fellowship with a fool.
62. The fool worries, thinking, “I have sons, I have wealth.” Indeed, when he himself is not his own, whence are sons, whence is wealth?
rubbish︰n. 垃圾，廢物。ditch︰n.水溝。resplendent︰a.燦爛的，光輝的。weary︰a. 疲倦的。resolutely︰adv. 堅決地。
〈58 ~ 59〉
63. A fool who knows his foolishness is wise at least to that extent, but a fool who thinks himself wise is called a fool indeed.
64. Though all his life a fool associates with a wise man, he no more comprehends the Truth than a spoon tastes the flavour of the soup.
65. Though only for a moment a discerning person associates with a wise man, quickly he comprehends the Truth, just as the tongue tastes the flavour of the soup.
66. Fools of little wit are enemies unto themselves as they move about doing evil deeds, the fruits of which are bitter.
67. Ill done is that action doing which one repents later, and the fruits of which one reaps, weeping, reaps with tears.
68. Well done is that action doing which one repents not later, and the fruits of which one reaps with delight and happiness.
69. So long as an evil deed has not ripened, the fool thinks it as sweet as honey. But when the evil deed ripens, the fool comes to grief.
70. Month after month a fool may eat his food with the tip of a blade of grass, but he still is not worth a sixteenth part of those who have comprehended the Truth.
71. Truly, an evil deed committed does not immediately bear fruit, like milk that does not turn sour all at once. But smouldering, it follows the fool like fire covered by ashes.
72. To his own ruin the fool gains knowledge, for it cleaves his head and destroys his innate goodness.
73. The fool seeks undeserved reputation, precedence among monks, authority over monasteries, and honour among householders.
74. “Let both laymen and monks think that it was done by me. In every work, great and small, let them follow me” -- such is the ambition of the fool; thus his desire and pride increase.
75. One is the quest for worldly gain, and quite another is the path to Nibbāna. Clearly understanding this, let not the monk, the disciple of the Buddha, be carried away by worldly acclaim, but develop detachment instead.
〈73 ~ 74〉
76. Should one find a man who points out faults and who reproves, let him follow such a wise and sagacious person as one would a guide to hidden treasure. It is always better, and never worse, to cultivate such an association.
77. Let him admonish, instruct and shield one from wrong; he, indeed, is dear to the good and detestable to the evil.
78. Do not associate with evil companions; do not seek the fellowship of the vile. Associate with good friends; seek the fellowship of noble men.
79. He who drinks deep the Dhamma lives happily with a tranquil mind. The wise man ever delights in the Dhamma made known by the Noble One (the Buddha).
80. Irrigators regulate the waters; fletchers straighten the arrow shaft; carpenters shape the wood; the wise control themselves.
81. Just as a solid rock is not shaken by the storm, even so the wise are not affected by praise or blame.
reprove︰v. 責備，指責。 sagacious︰a. 睿智的。 admonish︰v. 訓誡。
82. On hearing the Teachings, the wise become perfectly purified, like a lake deep, clear and still.
83. The good renounce (attachment for) everything; the virtuous do not prattle with a yearning for pleasures. The wise show no elation or depression when touched by happiness or sorrow.
84. He is indeed virtuous, wise and righteous, who neither for their own sake nor for the sake of another (does any wrong), who does not crave for sons, wealth or kingdom, and does not desire success by unjust means.
85. Few among men are those who cross to the farther shore. The rest, the bulk of men, only run up and down the hither bank.
86. But those who act according to the perfectly taught Dhamma will cross the realm of Death, so difficult to cross.
87-88. Abandoning the dark way, let the wise man cultivate the bright path. Having gone from home to homelessness, let him yearn for that delight in detachment, so difficult to enjoy. Giving up sensual pleasures, with no attachment, let the wise man cleanse himself of defilements of the mind.
prattle︰v. 閒聊；n. 無聊話。hither︰adv. 到這裡，向這裡。
〈85 ~ 86〉
〈87 ~ 89〉
89. Those whose minds have reached full excellence in the factors of enlightenment, who, having renounced acquisitiveness, rejoice in not clinging to things -- rid of cankers, glowing with wisdom, they have attained Nibbāna in this very life.
90. The fever of passion exists not for him who has completed the journey, who is sorrowless and wholly set free, and has broken all ties.
91. The mindful ones exert themselves. They are not attached to any home; like swans that abandon the lake, they leave home after home behind.
92. Those who do not accumulate and are wise regarding food, whose object is the Void, the Unconditioned Freedom -- their track cannot be traced, like that of birds in the air.
93. He whose cankers are destroyed and who is not attached to food, whose object is the Void, the unconditioned freedom -- his path cannot be traced, like that of birds in the air.
94. Even the gods hold dear the wise one, whose senses are subdued like horses well-trained by a charioteer, whose pride is destroyed and who is free from the cankers.
95. There is no more worldly existence for the wise one, who, like the earth, resents nothing; who is as firm as a high pillar and as pure as a deep pool free from mud.
96. Calm is his thought, calm his speech and calm his deed, who, truly knowing, is wholly freed, perfectly tranquil and wise.
97. The man who is without blind faith, who knows the Uncreate, who has severed all links, who has destroyed all causes (for kamma, good and evil), and who has thrown out all desires -- he, truly, is the most excellent of men.
98. Inspiring, indeed, is that place where Arahats dwell, be it a village, a forest, a vale or a hill.
99. Inspiring are the forests in which worldlings find no pleasure. There the passionless will rejoice, for they seek no sensual pleasures.
100. Better than a thousand useless words is one useful word, hearing which one attains peace.
101. Better than a thousand useless verses is one useful verse, hearing which one attains peace.
102. Better than reciting a hundred meaningless verses is the reciting of one verse of Dhamma, hearing which one attains peace.
103. Though one may conquer a thousand times a thousand people in battle, yet he indeed is the noblest victor who conquers himself.
104-105. Self-conquest is far better than the conquest of others. Not even a god, an angel, Māra or Brahmā can turn into defeat the victory of such a person who is self-subdued and ever restrained in conduct.
〈102 ~ 103〉
〈104 ~ 105〉
106. Though month after month for a hundred years one should offer sacrifices by the thousands, yet if only for a moment one should worship those of perfected minds that honour is indeed better than a century of sacrifice.
107. Though for a hundred years one should tend the sacrificial fire in the forest, yet if only for a moment one should worship those of perfected minds that worship is indeed better than a century of sacrifice.
108. Whatever gifts and oblations one seeking merit might offer in this world for a whole year, all that is not worth one fourth of the merit gained by revering the Upright Ones, which is truly excellent.
109. To one ever eager to revere and serve the elders, these four blessings accrue: long life and beauty, happiness and power.
110. Better it is to live one day virtuous and meditative than to live a hundred years immoral and uncontrolled.
111. Better it is to live one day wise and meditative than to live a hundred years foolish and uncontrolled.
oblation︰n. 奉獻物。 accrue︰v. 孳生，增加。sluggish ︰a.懶散的。dissipated︰a. 放蕩的。
112. Better it is to live one day strenuous and resolute than to live a hundred years sluggish and dissipated.
113. Better it is to live one day seeing the rise and fall of things than to live a hundred years without ever seeing the rise and fall of things.
114. Better it is to live one day seeing the Deathless than to live a hundred years without ever seeing the Deathless.
115. Better it is to live one day seeing the Supreme Truth than to live a hundred years without ever seeing the Supreme Truth.
116. Hasten to do good and restrain your mind from evil. He who is slow in doing good, his mind delights in evil.
117. Should a person commit evil, let him not do it again and again. Let him not find pleasure therein, for painful is the accumulation of evil.
118. Should a person do good, let him do it again and again. Let him find pleasure therein, for blissful is the accumulation of good.
119. It may be well with the evil-doer as long as the evil ripens not, but when it does ripen, then the evil-doer sees (the painful results of) his evil deeds.
120. It may be ill with the doer of good as long as the good ripens not. But when it does ripen, then the doer of good sees (the pleasant results of) his good deeds.
121. Think not lightly of evil, saying, “It will not come to me.” Drop by drop is the water pot filled; likewise, the fool, gathering it little by little, fills himself with evil.
122. Think not lightly of good, saying, “It will not come to me.” Drop by drop is the water pot filled; likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.
123. Just as a trader with a small escort and great wealth would avoid a perilous route, or just as one desiring to live avoids poison, even so should one shun evil.
escort︰n. 護衛，護送，陪同。perilous︰a. 危險的，冒險的。
〈119 ~ 120〉
124. If on the hand there is no wound, one may even carry poison in it. Poison does not affect one who is free from wounds. For him who does no evil, there is no ill.
125. Like fine dust thrown against the wind, evil falls back upon that fool who offends an inoffensive, pure and guiltless man.
126. Some are born in the womb; the wicked are born in hell; the devout go to heaven; the stainless pass into Nibbāna.
127. Neither in the sky nor in mid-ocean, nor by entering into mountain clefts, nowhere in the world is there a place where one may escape from the results of evil deeds.
128. Neither in the sky nor in mid-ocean, nor by entering into mountain clefts, nowhere in the world is there a place where one will not be overcome by death.
129. All tremble at violence; all fear death. Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.
inoffensive︰a. 無害的。 wicked︰ a. 邪惡的。 cleft︰n. 裂縫。
tremble︰n. v. 發抖，震顫。
130. All tremble at violence; life is dear to all. Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.
131. One who, while himself seeking happiness, oppresses with violence other beings who also desire happiness, will not attain happiness hereafter.
132. One who, while himself seeking happiness, does not oppress with violence other beings who also desire happiness, will find happiness hereafter.
133. Speak not harshly to anyone, for those thus spoken to might retort. Indeed, angry speech hurts, and retaliation may overtake you.
134. If, like a broken gong, you silence yourself, you have approached Nibbāna, for vindictiveness is no more in you.
135.Just as a cowherd drives the cattle to pasture with a staff, so do old age and death drive the life force of beings (from existence to existence).
hereafter︰adv. 此後。 harshly︰粗糙地。 retaliation︰n. 報復。
〈131 ~ 132〉
〈133 ~ 134〉
136. When fools commit evil deeds, he does not realize (their evil nature). The witless man is tormented by his own deeds, like one burnt by fire.
137. He who inflict violence on those who are unarmed, and offends those who are inoffensive, will soon come upon one of these ten states:
138-140. (1)Sharp pain, or disaster, (2)bodily injury, (3)serious illness, (4)or derangement of mind, (5)trouble from the government, (6)or grave charges, (7)loss of relatives, (8)or loss of wealth, (9)or houses destroyed by a ravaging fire, (10)and upon dissolution of the body those ignorant man is born in hell.
141. Neither going about naked, nor matted locks, nor filth, nor fasting, nor lying on the ground, nor smearing oneself with ashes and dust, nor sitting on the heels (in penance) can purify a mortal who has not overcome doubt.
142. Even though he be well-attired, yet if he is poised, calm, controlled and established in the holy life, having set aside violence towards all beings -- one, truly, is a holy man, a renunciate, a monk.
ravage︰n. v. 毀滅。 renunciate︰n. 棄世者。
〈137 ~ 140〉
143. Only rarely is there a man in this world who, restrained by modesty, avoids reproach, as a thoroughbred horse avoids the whip.
144. Like a thoroughbred horse touched by the whip, be strenuous, be filled with spiritual yearning. By faith and moral purity, by effort and meditation, by investigation of the truth, by being rich in knowledge and virtue, and by being mindful, destroy this unlimited suffering.
145. Irrigators regulate the waters; fletchers straighten arrow shafts; carpenters shape wood; and the good control themselves.
146. When this world is ever ablaze, why this laughter, why this jubilation? Shrouded in darkness, will you seek the light?
147. Behold this body -- a painted image, a mass of heaped up sores, infirm, full of hankering – of which nothing lasting or stable.
reproach︰v. n. 責備。thoroughbred︰a. 良種的,純種的。ablaze︰a. adv.
著火。jubilation︰n. 歡慶。shroud︰v. n. 覆蓋;掩蔽。sore︰n. 痛處。
〈143 ~ 144〉
148. Fully worn out is this body, a nest of disease, and fragile. This foul mass breaks up, for death is the end of life.
149. These dove-coloured bones are like gourds that lie scattered about in autumn. Having seen them, how can one seek delight?
150. This city (body) is built of bones, plastered with flesh and blood; within are decay and death, pride and jealousy.
151. Even gorgeous royal chariots wear out, and indeed this body too wears out. But the Dhamma of the Good does not age; thus the Good make it known to the good.
152. The man of little learning grows old like a bull. He grows only in bulk, but his wisdom does not grow.
153. Through many a birth in saṁsāra have I wandered in vain, seeking the builder of this house (of life). Repeated birth is indeed suffering!
154. O house-builder, you are seen! You will not build this house again. For your rafters are broken and your ridgepole shattered. My mind has reached the Unconditioned; I have attained the destruction of craving.
plaster︰v. 塗抹。 gorgeous︰a. 燦爛的，華麗的。 rafter︰v.n. 椽。
155. Those who in youth have not led the holy life, or have failed to acquire wealth, languish like old cranes in a pond without fish.
156. Those who in youth have not led the holy life, or have failed to acquire wealth, lie sighing over the past, like worn-out arrows (shot from) a bow.
157. If one holds oneself dear, one should diligently watch oneself. Let the wise man keep vigil during any of the three watches of the night.
158. One should first establish oneself in what is proper; then only should one instruct others. Thus the wise man will not be reproached.
languish︰v.焦思。 vigil︰n. 警戒。
159. One should do what one teaches others to do; if one would train others, one should be well-controlled oneself. Difficult, indeed is self-control.
160. One truly is the protector of oneself; who else could the protector be? With oneself fully controlled, one gains a mastery that is hard to gain.
161. The evil a witless man does by himself, born of himself and produced by himself, grinds him as a diamond grinds a hard gem.
162. Just as a jungle creeper strangles the tree on which it grows, even so a man who is exceedingly depraved harms himself as an enemy might wish.
163. Easy to do are things that are bad and harmful to oneself. But exceedingly difficult to do are things that are good and beneficial.
grind︰v. 磨，磨成。 depraved︰a. 墮落的，邪惡的。
164. Whoever, on account of perverted views, scorns the Teaching of the Perfected Ones, the Noble and Righteous Ones of righteous life -- that fool, like the bamboo, produces fruits only for self-destruction.
165. By oneself is evil done, by oneself is one defiled. By oneself is evil left undone, by oneself is one made pure. Purity and impurity depend on oneself; no one can purify another.
166. Let one not neglect his own welfare for the sake of another, however great. Clearly understanding his own welfare, let one be intent upon the good.
167. Follow not the vulgar way; live not in heedlessness; hold not false views; linger not long in worldly existence.
168. Arise! Do not be heedless! Lead a righteous life. The righteous live happily both in this world and the next.
169. Lead a righteous life; lead not a base life. The righteous
live happily both in this world and the next.
perverted︰a. 使變壞的，腐蝕的。 intent︰a.熱切的。
170. One who looks upon the world as a bubble and a mirage, him the King of Death sees not.
171. Come! Behold this world, which is like a decorated royal chariot. Here fools flounder, but the wise have no attachment to it.
172. He who having been heedless is heedless no more, illuminates this world like the moon freed from clouds.
173. He who by good deeds covers the evil he has done, illuminates this world like the moon freed from clouds.
174. Blind is this world; here only a few possess insight. Only a few, like birds escaping from a net, go to the realms of bliss.
175. Swans fly on the path of the sun; men pass through the air by psychic powers; the wise are led away from the world after vanquishing Māra and his host.
vanquish︰v. 征服。 scorn︰n. v. 輕蔑，藐視
176. For a liar who has violated the one law (of truthfulness), who holds in scorn the hereafter, there is no evil that they cannot do.
177. Truly, misers fare not to heavenly realms; nor, indeed, do fools praise generosity. But wise man rejoices in giving, and by that alone does he become happy hereafter.
178. Better than sole sovereignty over the earth, better than going to heaven, better even than lordship over all the worlds is the Supramundane Fruition of Stream-entry.
179. By what track can you trace that trackless Buddha of limitless range, whose victory nothing can undo, whom none of the vanquished defilements can ever pursue?
180. By what track can you trace that trackless Buddha of limitless range, in whom exists no longer the entangling and embroiling craving that perpetuates becoming?
181. Those wise ones who are devoted to meditation and who delight in the calm of renunciation -- such mindful ones, Supreme Buddhas, even the gods hold dear.
generosity︰n. 慷慨。 Stream-entry(sotāpatti)︰the first stage of supramundane attainment.(須陀洹︰出世間體證的第一階)
sovereignty︰n. 主權，統治權。 entangle︰v. 纏住。embroil︰v. 使混亂。perpetuate︰v. 使永久存在。
182. Hard is it to be born a human; hard is the life of mortals. Hard is it to gain the opportunity to hear the Sublime Truth, and hard to encounter is the arising of the Buddhas.
183. To avoid all evil, to cultivate good, and to cleanse his mind -- this is the teaching of the Buddhas.
184. Enduring patience is the highest austerity. “Nibbāna is supreme,” say the Buddhas. He is not a true monk who harms another, nor a real renunciate who oppresses others.
185. Not despising, not harming, restraint according to the code of monastic discipline, moderation in food, dwelling in solitude, devotion to meditation -- this is the teaching of the Buddhas.
186-187. There is no satisfying sensual desires, even with a rain of gold coins. For sensual pleasures give little satisfaction and much pain. Having understood this, the wise man finds no delight even in heavenly pleasures. The disciple of the Supreme Buddha delights in the destruction of craving.
endure︰v. 忍耐，持續。 austerity︰n. 苦行。
188. Driven by fear, do men go for refuge to many places -- to hills, woods, groves, trees and shrines.
189. Such, indeed, is no safe refuge; such is not the refuge supreme. Not by resorting to such a refuge is one released from all suffering.
190-191. He who have gone for refuge to the Buddha, his Teaching and his Order, penetrates with transcendental wisdom the Four Noble Truths -- suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the Noble Eightfold Path leading to the cessation of suffering.
192. This indeed is the safe refuge, this is the refuge supreme. Having gone to such a refuge, one is released from all suffering.
193. Hard to find is the thoroughbred man (the Buddha), he is not born everywhere. Where such a wise man is born, that clan thrives happily.
194. Blessed is the birth of the Buddhas; blessed is the enunciation of the sacred Teaching; blessed is harmony in the Order; and blessed is the spiritual pursuit of the united truth-seekers.
〈188 ~ 192〉
195-196. He who revere those worthy of reverence, the Buddhas and their disciples, who have transcended all obstacles and passed beyond the reach of sorrow and lamentation -- he who revere such peaceful and fearless ones, his merit none can compute by any measure.
197. Happy indeed we live, friendly amidst the hostile. Amidst hostile people we dwell free from hatred.
198. Happy indeed we live, unafflicted amidst the afflicted (by craving). Amidst afflicted men we dwell free from affliction.
199. Happy indeed we live, free from avarice amidst the avaricious. Amidst avaricious people we dwell free from avarice.
reverence︰n. v. 尊敬。 lamentation︰n. 悲歎。 unafflict︰v. 無折磨。
avarice︰n. 貪婪。 beget︰v. 引起，招致。
〈195 ~ 196〉
〈197 ~ 199〉
200. Happy indeed we live, we who possess nothing. Feeders on joy we shall be, like the Radiant Gods.
201. Victory begets enmity; the defeated dwell in pain. Happily the peaceful live, discarding both victory and defeat.
202. There is no fire like lust and no crime like hatred. There is no ill like the aggregates (of existence) and no bliss higher than the peace (of Nibbāna).
203. Hunger is the worst disease, conditioned things the worst suffering. Knowing this as it really is, the wise realize Nibbāna, the highest bliss.
204. Health is the precious gain and contentment the greatest wealth. A trustworthy person is the best kinsman, Nibbāna the highest bliss.
205. Having savoured the taste of solitude and peace (of Nibbāna), pain-free and stainless he becomes, drinking deep the taste of the bliss of Truth.
aggregates(of existence) (khandha)︰n.pl. 五蘊。
A trustworthy person is the best kinsman︰[vissāsa信賴][paramā最超越(陰單主格, a.)] [ñātī親屬(陰單主格)]。 savour︰n. 滋味。
206. Good it is to see the Noble Ones, to live with them is ever blissful. One will always be happy by not encountering fools.
207. Indeed, he who moves in the company of fools grieves for long. Association with fools is ever painful, like partnership with an enemy. But association with the wise is happy, like meeting his own kinsmen.
208.Therefore, follow the Noble One, who is steadfast, wise, learned, dutiful and devout. One should follow only such a man, who is truly good and discerning, even as the moon follows the path of the stars.
209. Giving himself to things to be shunned and not exerting where exertion is needed, a seeker after pleasures, having give up his true welfare, envies those intent upon theirs.
210. Seek no intimacy with the beloved and also not with the unloved, for not to see the beloved and to see the unloved, both are painful.
211. Therefore, hold nothing dear, for separation from the dear is painful. There are no bonds for those who have nothing beloved or unloved.
212.From endearment springs grief, from endearment springs fear. For those who are wholly free from endearment there is no grief, whence then fear?
shun︰v. 迴避。 intimacy︰n. 熟悉，親密。 endearment︰n. 愛意。
〈206 ~ 208〉
〈209 ~ 211〉
213. From affection springs grief, from affection springs fear. For him who is wholly free from affection there is no grief, whence then fear?
214. From attachment springs grief, from attachment springs fear. For him who is wholly free from attachment there is no grief, whence then fear?
215. From lust springs grief, from lust springs fear. For him who is wholly free from lust there is no grief, whence then fear.
216.From craving springs grief, from craving springs fear. For him who is wholly free from craving there is no grief, whence then fear?
217. People hold dear him who embodies virtue and insight, who is principled, has realized the Truth, and who himself does what he ought to be doing.
218. One who is intent upon the Ineffable (Nibbāna) and dwells with mind inspired (by supramundane wisdom), and is no more bound by sense pleasures – such a man is called “One Bound Upstream”.
embody︰v. 體現，使具體化。 ineffable︰a. n. 難以形容。
One Bound Upstream︰a Non-returner (anāgāmi)(不來果(阿那含)).
219. When, after a long absence, a man safely returns home from afar, his relatives, friends and well-wishers welcome him home on arrival.
220. As kinsmen welcome a dear one on arrival, even so his own good deeds will welcome the doer of good who has gone from this world to the next.
221. One should give up anger, renounce pride, and overcome all fetters. Suffering never befalls those who cling not to mind and body and is detached.
222. He who checks rising anger as a charioteer checks a rolling chariot, him I call a true charioteers; others only hold the reins.
223. Overcome the angry by non-anger; overcome the wicked by goodness; overcome the miser by generosity; overcome the liar by truth.
224. Speak the truth; yield not to anger; when asked, give even if you only have a little. By these three means can one reach the presence of the gods.
renounce︰v. 拋棄。 reins︰n. 腰
〈219 ~ 220〉
225. Those sages who are inoffensive and ever restrained in body, go to the Deathless State, where, having gone, they grieve no more.
226. Those who are ever vigilant, who discipline themselves day and night, and are ever intent upon Nibbāna -- their defilements fade away.
227. O Atula! Indeed, this is an ancient practice, not one only of today: they blame those who remain silent, they blame those who speak much, they blame those who speak in moderation. There is none in this world who is not blamed.
228.There never was, there never will be, nor is there now, a person who is wholly blamed or wholly praised.
229. But the man whom the wise praise, after observing him day after day, is one of flawless character, wise, and endowed with knowledge and virtue.
230.Who can blame such a one, as worthy as a coin of refined gold? Even the gods praise him; by Brahma, too, is the person praised.
vigilant︰a. 警寤的，警戒的。 moderation︰n. 溫和。
〈227 ~ 230〉
231. Let a man guard himself against irritability in bodily action; let him be controlled in bodily deed. Abandoning bodily misconduct, let him practice good conduct in deed.
232.Let a man guard himself against irritability in speech; let him be controlled in speech. Abandoning verbal misconduct, let him practice good conduct in speech.
233. Let a man guard himself against irritability in thought; let him be controlled in mind. Abandoning mental misconduct, let him practice good conduct in thought.
234. The wise are controlled in bodily action, controlled in speech and controlled in thought. They are truly well-controlled.
235. Like a withered leaf are you now; death’s messengers await you. You stand on the eve of your departure, yet you have made no provision for your journey!
236. Make an island for yourself! Strive hard and become wise! Rid of impurities and cleansed of stain, you shall enter the celestial abode of the Noble Ones.
irritability︰n. 易怒。 withered︰a. 枯萎的。
〈231 ~ 234〉
〈235 ~ 238〉
237. Your life has come to an end now; you are setting forth into the presence of Yama, the King of Death. No resting place is there for you on the way, yet you have made no provision for your journey!
238. Make an island for yourself! Strive hard and become wise! Rid of impurities and cleansed of stain, you shall not come again to birth and decay.
239.One by one, little by little, moment by moment, a wise man should remove his own impurities, as a smith removes the dross from silver.
240. Just as rust arising from iron eats away the base from which it arises, even so, their own deeds lead transgressors to states of woe.
241. Non-repetition is the bane of scriptures; neglect is the bane of a home; slovenliness is the bane of personal appearance, and heedlessness is the bane of a guard.
242. Unchastity is the taint in a woman; niggardliness is the taint in a giver. Taints, indeed, are all evil things, both in this world and the next.
243. A worse taint than these is ignorance, the worst of all taints. Destroy this one taint and become taintless, O monks!
setting forth︰提出。 provision︰n. 資糧。 transgressor︰n. 犯法者。bane︰n. 禍根。 slovenly︰a. 懶散的。 unchastity︰n.不貞。niggardly︰a.吝嗇的。
〈242 ~ 243〉
244. Easy is life for the shameless one who is as impudent as a crow, back-biting and forward, arrogant and corrupt.
245. Difficult is life for the modest one who always seeks purity, is detached and unassuming, clean in life, and discerning.
246-247. One who destroys life, utters lies, takes what is not given, goes to another man’s wife, and is addicted to intoxicating drinks—such a man digs up his own root even in this very world.
248. Know this, O good man: evil things are difficult to control. Let not greed and wickedness drag you to protracted misery.
249. People give according to their faith or regard. If one becomes discontented with the food and drink given by others, one does not attain meditative absorption, either by day or by night.
250. But he in whom this (discontent) is fully destroyed, uprooted and extinct, he attains absorption, both by day and by night.
impudent︰a. 無禮的。 arrogant︰a. 傲慢的。protracted︰a. 拖延的。
〈244 ~ 245〉
〈246 ~ 248〉
〈249 ~ 250〉
251. There is no fire like lust; there is no grip like hatred; there is no net like delusion; there is no river like craving.
252. Easily seen is the fault of others, but his own are difficult to see. Like chaff one winnows another’s faults, but hides his own, even as a crafty fowler hides behind sham branches.
253. He who seeks another’s faults, who is ever censorious -- his cankers grow. He is far from destruction of the cankers.
254. There is no track in the sky, and no recluse outside (the Buddha’s dispensation). Mankind delights in worldliness, but the Buddhas are free from worldliness.
255. There is no track in the sky, and no recluse outside (the Buddha’s dispensation). There are no conditioned things that are eternal, and no instability in the Buddhas.
256. Not by passing arbitrary judgements does a man become just; a wise man is he who investigates both right and wrong.
257. He who does not judge others arbitrarily, but passes judgement impartially according to truth, that sagacious man is a guardian of law and is called just.
grip︰n. v. 緊握。crafty︰a. 狡猾的。fowler︰n. 獵獸者。sham︰n.a. 騙局。
Recluse(samaṇa): here used in the special sense of those who have reached the four supramundane stages.(沙門︰在此特指四沙門果) arbitrarily︰adv. 任意地。
〈254 ~ 255〉
〈256 ~ 257〉
258. One is not wise because one speaks much. He who is peaceable, friendly and fearless is called wise.
259.A man is not versed in Dhamma because he speaks much. He who, after hearing even a little Dhamma, does not neglect it but personally realizes its truth directly and is not heedless of it, is truly versed in the Dhamma.
260.A monk is not an Elder because his head is gray. He is but ripe in age, and he is called one grown old in vain.
261.One in whom there is truthfulness, virtue, inoffensiveness, restraint and self-mastery, who is free from defilements and is wise -- he is truly called an Elder.
262. Not by mere eloquence nor by beauty does a man become accomplished, if he is jealous, selfish and deceitful.
263. But he in whom these are wholly destroyed, uprooted and extinct, and who has cast out hatred -- that wise man is truly accomplished.
264. Not by shaven head does a man who is undisciplined and untruthful become a monk. How can he who is full of desire and greed be a monk?
265.He who wholly subdues evil both small and great is called a monk, because he has overcome all evil.
266. He is not a monk just because he lives on others’ alms. Not by adopting outward form does one become a true monk.
267. Whoever here (in the Dispensation) lives the holy life, transcending both merit and demerit, and walks with understanding in this world — he is truly called a monk.
268. Not by observing silence does one become a sage, if he be foolish and ignorant. But that man is wise who, as if holding a balance-scale, accepts only the good.
269. The sage, (thus) rejecting the evil, is truly a sage. Since he comprehends both (present and future) worlds, he is called a sage.
270.He is not a noble who injures living beings. He is called a noble because he is harmless towards all living beings.
271. Not by rules and observances, not even by much learning, ; nor by gain of absorption, nor by a life of seclusion.
272. Nor by thinking: “I enjoy the bliss of renunciation, which is not experienced by the worldling.” Should you, O monks, rest content, until the utter destruction of the cankers(arahatship) is reached.
273. Of all paths the Eightfold Path is the best; of all truths the Four Noble Truths are the best; of all things passionlessness is the best; of men the Seeing One (the Buddha) is the best.
274. This is the only path; there is none other for the purification of insight. Tread this path, and you will bewilder Māra.
275.Walking upon this path you will make an end of suffering. Having discovered how to pull out the thorn of lust, I make known the path.
276. You yourselves must strive; the Buddhas only point the way. Those meditative ones who tread the path are released from the bonds of Māra.
277.”All conditioned things are impermanent” -- when one sees this with wisdom, one turns away from suffering. This is the path to purification.
278. “All conditioned things are unsatisfactory” -- when one sees this with wisdom, one turns away from suffering. This is the path to purification.
279. “All things are not-self” -- when one sees this with wisdom, one turns away from suffering. This is the path to purification.
280. The idler who does not exert himself when he should, who though young and strong is full of sloth, with a mind full of vain thoughts -- such an indolent man does not find the path to wisdom.
281. Let a man be watchful of speech, well controlled in mind, and not commit evil bodily action. Let him purify these three courses of action, and win the path made known by the Great Sage.
282. Wisdom springs from meditation, without meditation wisdom wanes. Having known these two paths of progress and decline, let a man so conduct himself that his wisdom may increase.
283. Cut down the forest (of lust), but not the tree, from the forest springs fear. Having cut down the forest and the underbrush, be passionless, O monks!
284. For so long as the underbrush of desire, even the most subtle, of a man towards a woman is not cut down, his mind is in bondage, like the sucking calf to its mother.
285. Cut off your affection in the manner a man plucks with his hand an autumn lotus. Cultivate only the path to peace, Nibbāna, as made known by the Exalted One.
286. “Here shall I live during the rains, here in winter and summer” -- thus thinks the fool. He does not realize the danger (that death might intervene).
287. As a great flood carries away a sleeping village, so death seizes and carries away the man with a clinging mind, doting on his children and cattle.
288. For him who is assailed by death there is no protection by kinsmen. None there are to save him -- no sons, nor father nor relatives.
289. Realizing this fact, let the wise man, restrained by morality, hasten to clear the path leading to Nibbāna.
underbrush︰n. 矮樹叢。 intervene︰v. 介於中間。 dote︰v. 溺愛。
〈283 ~ 284〉
〈288 ~ 289〉
290. If by renouncing a lesser happiness one may realize a greater happiness, let the wise man renounce the lesser, having regard for the greater.
291. Entangled by the bonds of hate, he who seeks his own happiness by inflicting pain on others, is never be delivered from hatred.
292. The cankers only increase, for those who are arrogant and heedless, who leave undone what should be done and do what should not be done.
293. The cankers cease for those mindful and clearly comprehending ones who always earnestly practise mindfulness of the body, who do not resort to what should not be done, and steadfastly pursue what should be done.
〈292 ~ 293〉
294. Having slain mother (craving), father (self-conceit), two warrior kings (eternalism and nihilism), and destroyed a country (sense organs and sense objects) together with its treasurer (attachment and lust), ungrieving goes the holy man.
295. Having slain mother, father, two Brahmin kings (two extreme views), and a tiger as the fifth (the five mental hindrances), ungrieving goes the holy man.
296.Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily who day and night constantly practise the recollection of the Qualities of the Buddha.
297. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily who day and night constantly practise the Recollection of the Qualities of the Dhamma.
298. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily who day and night constantly practise the recollection of the Qualities of the Saṅgha.
299. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily who day and night constantly practise Mindfulness of the Body.
300. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily whose minds by day and night delight in the practice of non-violence.
301. Those disciples of Gotama ever awaken happily whose minds by day and night delight in the practice of meditation.
eternalism︰n. 常見。 nihilism︰n. 斷見。 recollection︰n. 回憶,記憶。
〈294 ~ 295〉
〈296 ~ 301〉
302. Difficult is life as a monk; difficult is it to delight therein. Also difficult and sorrowful is household life. Suffering comes from association with unequals, suffering comes from wandering in saṁsāra. Therefore, be not an aimless wanderer, be not a pursuer of suffering.
303. He who is full of faith and virtue, and possesses good repute and wealth—he is respected everywhere, in whatever land he travels.
304. The good shine even from afar, like the Himalaya mountain. But the wicked are unseen, like arrows shot in the night.
305. He who sits alone, sleeps alone and walks alone, who is strenuous and subdues himself alone, will find delight in the solitude of the forest.
saṁsāra︰n. 輪迴。 solitude︰n. 隱居，孤獨，寂寞
306. The liar goes to the state of woe; also he who, having done (wrong), says, “I did not do it.” Men of base actions both, on departing they share the same destiny in the other world.
307. There are many evil characters and uncontrolled men wearing the saffron robe. These wicked men will be born in states of woe because of their evil deeds.
308. It would be better to swallow a red-hot iron ball, blazing like fire, than as an immoral and uncontrolled monk to eat the alms of the people.
309. Four misfortunes befall the reckless man who consorts with another’s spouse︰ acquisition of demerit, disturbed sleep, ill-repute and (rebirth in) states of woe.
310. Such a man acquires demerit and an unhappy birth in the future. Brief is the pleasure of the frightened man and woman, and the king imposes heavy punishment. Hence, let no man consort with another’s spouse.
saffron︰n. 橙黃色，番紅花。 swallow︰v. 吞。consort︰v. 陪伴。