Visuddhimagga

覺音(Buddhaghosa)著  葉均

re-edited by Dhammavassārāma

2551B.E. (2007A.D.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(電子檔頁碼與原書不同)

漢譯前言·············································································葉均1~3

····································································釋本寂1

··············································································1~3

本文細目··················································································1~19

·······················································································1

第一  ·····································································7

第二  說頭陀支品·····························································57

第三  說取處品·····························································85

第四  地遍品·······························································119

第五  遍品·······························································169

第六  說不淨業處品·························································177

第七  六隨念····························································195

第八  念業處品·························································231

第九  住品·······························································295

第十  說無色品·······························································329

第十一  說定·······························································345

第十二  神變品····························································377

第十三  通品··························································411

第十四  ·····························································443

第十五  ··························································495

第十六  諦品··························································505

第十七  地品··························································533

第十八  說見清淨品·······················································609

第十九  說度疑清淨品····················································621

第二十  說道非道智見清淨品···········································629

第二十一  說行道智見清淨···········································661

第二十二  說智見清淨品·················································693

第二十三  說修慧的功德品··············································721

結論············································································735

斯里蘭卡年表·······················································739

漢巴名索引································································743

 


本文細目

···············································································1

 

第一  ·································································7

一、什麼是·······························································7

二、什麼是戒的語義···················································8

三、什麼是戒的相(特相)、味(作用)、

現起(現狀)、足處(近因)········································9

四、什麼是戒的功德·····················································10

五、戒有幾種·····························································11

(一)一法(一種)·················································12

(二)二法(七種)·················································12

(三)三法(五種)·················································14

(四)四法(四種)·················································16

第四種四法的說明·······································17

1)別解脫律儀戒·········································18

2)根律儀戒················································21

3)活命遍淨戒·············································23

4)資具依止戒·············································31

(五)五法(二種)···········································46

六、什麼是戒的雜染·················································50

七、什麼是戒的淨化·················································50

 

第二  說頭陀支品·····························································57

十三頭陀支的語義·····················································58

頭陀支的相、味、現起、足處········································60

頭陀支的受持、規定、區別、破壞、功德······························60

一、糞掃衣支···························································60

二、三衣支································································63

三、常乞食支·····························································64

四、次第乞食支·····················································66

五、一座食支·······················································68

六、一鉢食支·······················································69

七、時後不食支····················································70

八、阿練若住支····················································71

九、樹下住支······················································73

十、露地住支························································75

十一、塚間住支·····················································76

十二、隨處住支······················································77

十三、常坐不臥支···················································78

頭陀等的善三法·····················································79

頭陀等的分別·························································80

頭陀的總與別························································81

 

第三  說取業處品·························································85

一、什麼是定····························································85

二、什麼是定的語義···············································85

三、什麼是定的相、味、現起、足處···································86

四、定有幾種·······················································86

(一)一法(一種)·········································86

(二)二法(四種)···········································86

(三)三法(四種)···········································87

(四)四法(六種)··········································88

(五)五法(一種)··············································91

五、什麼是定的雜染····················································91

六、什麼是淨化····················································91

七、怎樣修習·····························································91

(一)破除十種障礙──住所、家、利養、眾、

業、旅行、親戚、病、讀書、神變···················92

(二)親近教授業處的善友·······························100

(三)順適自己的性行·····································103

1)性行的區別······································103

2)性行的原因··································104

3)性行的辨知法································106

4)性行者的適不適······························109

(四)四十業處──十遍、十不淨、十隨念、

四梵住、四無色、一想、一差別······················111

1)依名稱的解釋··································111

2)依近行與安止的導入··························111

3)依禪的區別·········································112

4)依超越···············································112

5)依增不增············································112

6)依所緣···············································113

7)依地·················································114

8)依執取···············································114

9)依緣···················································114

10 依性行的順適··································115

 

第四  說地遍品······························································119

(五)為修習於定,捨棄不適合的精舍而住於

適合的精舍·············································119

1)不適於修定的精舍······························119

2)住於適當的精舍································123

(六)破除細障·················································123

(七)修習法·····················································123

1)地遍修習法········································124

1)四遍過失········································124

2)遍的作法········································124

3)修習法···········································125

4)二種相···········································125

5)二種定··········································126

6)七種適不適···································127

7)十種安止善巧·································129

8)精進平等·······································136

9)安止定的規定·································138

四種禪的修習法········································139

1)初禪··················································139

初禪的捨斷支·····································140

初禪的相應支·····································142

捨離五支、具備五支····························146

三種善與十相成就·······························147

初禪的進展(1)行相的把握··················150

初禪的進展(2)障礙法的淨化···············151

初禪的進展(3)似相的增大··················151

初禪的進展(4)五自在·······················153

2)第二禪·················································154

3)第三禪·················································157

4)第四禪·················································162

五種禪··················································166

 

第五  說餘遍品······················································169

2)水遍···············································169

3)火遍···················································170

4)風遍····················································170

5)青遍···················································171

6)黃遍····················································172

7)赤遍···················································172

8)白遍···················································173

9)光明遍················································173

10 限定虛空遍······································174

雜論十遍···························································174

 

第六  說不淨業處品·························································177

十不淨的語義··························································177

修習法···································································178

(一)膨脹相的修習法·········································178

1)為取不淨相而前行的處所························178

2)四方諸相的考察···································180

3)以十一種法取相···································181

4)觀察往來的路······································184

5)安止的規定··········································185

(二)青瘀相······················································186

(三)膿爛相·······················································186

(四)斷壞相······················································186

(五)食殘相·····················································187

(六)散亂相······················································187

(七)斬離散相················································187

(八)血塗相······················································187

(九)蟲聚相······················································187

(十)骸骨相······················································188

雜論十不淨························································189

 

第七  說六隨念品···························································195

十隨念的語義··························································195

(一)佛隨念······················································196

(二)法隨念······················································213

(三)僧隨念······················································219

(四)戒隨念·······················································222

(五)捨隨念······················································224

(六)天隨念······················································226

雜論································································227

 

第八  說隨念業處品························································231

(七)念死·························································231

念死的修法之一·········································232

念死的修法之二──另有八種修法·················232

念死的功德···············································242

(八)身至念······················································243

釋身至念的聖典文句···································244

身至念的修法············································245

1)七種把持善巧··································245

2)十種作意善巧··································247

3)取三十二分身之相與厭惡性·················251

身至念的功德············································267

(九)安般念······················································267

釋安般念的聖典文句··································268

安般念的十六事·········································273

第一四法的修習··································278

1)數··········································279

2)隨逐·······································280

3)觸··········································280

4)安住·······································282

5)觀察(6)還滅(7)遍淨············286

第二種四法·········································287

第三種四法·········································288

第四種四法········································289

安般念定的功德·········································290

(十)寂止隨念···················································292

聖典的文句···············································293

寂止隨念的修法·········································293

寂止隨念的功德·········································294

 

第九  說梵住品·····························································295

(一)慈的修習···················································295

觀察瞋恚之過及忍辱之德···························295

初學者當避免的慈的所緣····························295

不可對他修慈的人·······································296

1)對自己修慈····································296

2)對可愛者修慈································297

3)對一切人修慈·································298

4)對怨敵修慈···································298

5)修平等慈·······································308

釋慈定的聖典文句······································309

種種的慈心解脫·········································310

修慈的功德···············································313

(二)悲的修習···················································316

(三)喜的修習····················································318

(四)捨的修習···················································319

雜論四梵住······························································319

慈悲喜捨的語義·················································319

慈悲喜捨的相、味、現起、足處、成就、失敗··········320

修四梵住的目的·················································320

四梵住之敵·······················································321

四梵住的初中後·················································322

增長四梵住的所緣·············································322

四梵住的等流關係···············································322

關於四梵住的四個問題········································322

四梵住與色界諸禪的關係·····································324

四梵住所達的最高處···········································326

四梵住為十波羅蜜等一切善法的圓滿者····················327

 

第十  說無色品·····························································329

(一)空無邊處業處·············································329

空無邊處業處的修法·································329

釋空無邊處業處的聖典文句························331

(二)識無邊處業處··············································334

識無邊處業處的修法··································335

釋識無邊處業處的聖典文句························335

(三)無所有處業處·············································336

無所有處業處的修法··································336

釋無所有處業處的聖典文句·························337

(四)非想非非想處業處·······································338

非想非非想處業處的修法····························338

釋非想非非想處業處的聖典文句····················339

雜論································································342

超越所緣····················································342

後後更勝妙於前前········································342

非想非非想處以無所有處為所緣的理由············344

 

第十一  說定品···························································345

(一)食厭想的修習············································345

食厭想的語義············································345

食厭想的修法············································346

食厭想的功德············································351

(二)四界差別的修習··········································351

四界差別的語義·········································351

四界差別的經典········································351

1)大念處經說···································352

2)大象迹喻經說································353

四界差別的修法········································355

利慧者的修法之一·····································355

利慧者的修法之二······································356

不很利慧者的修法····································356

1)以簡略其機構而修習·······················356

2)以分別其機構而修習·······················356

1) 地界二十部分的作意····················357

2) 水界十二部分的作意····················361

3) 火界四部分的作意························364

4) 風界六部分的作意························365

3)以簡略其相而修習···························365

4)以分別其相而修習···························366

十三行相的修法········································366

四界差別的功德·········································373

論修定的結語···········································373

(從第三品至第十一品,這九品都是說修定的。在第三品中提出第七怎樣修習的問題,至此解釋完畢)

八、修定有什麼功德···················································374

(這是在第三品提出的第八個問題,說明修定有能得(一)現法樂住(二)毗舍那(三)神通(四)勝有(五)滅盡定等的功德)

 

第十二  說神變···························································377

(第十二和十三兩品,是解釋上面提到修定有什麼功德的問題中說『修定而有神通的功德』這一句的)

一、神變論·······························································377

以十四行相調心··················································377

神變修行的方法及引經的解釋·······························380

十種神變(決意神變、變化神變、意所成神變、智遍滿神變、定遍滿神變、聖神變、業報生神變,具福神變、咒術所成神變、彼彼處正加行緣成神變)··········382

(一)決意神變···················································388

1)一身成多身神變····································389

2)多身成一身神變····································394

3)顯現神變·············································395

4)隱匿神變·············································397

5)不障礙神變··········································399

6)地中出沒神變········································400

7)水上不沉神變·······································400

8)飛行神變·············································401

9)手觸日月神變·······································402

10 身自在神變········································405

(二)變化神變····················································409

(三)意所成神變················································409

 

第十三  說神通品···························································411

二、天耳界論·····························································411

三、他心智論····························································412

四、宿住隨念智論·······················································415

六種人的宿住隨念···············································416

世間的破壞·······················································419

(一)為火所壞············································420

(二)為水所壞·············································424

(三)為風所壞············································425

世間毀滅的原由·················································426

五、死生智論·····························································427

雜論五神通····························································434

(一)神變智的所緣·············································434

(二)天耳界智的所緣···········································435

(三)他心智的所緣·············································436

(四)宿住隨念智的所緣·······································438

(五)天眼智的所緣·············································439

(六)未來分智的所緣···········································439

(七)隨業趣智的所緣··········································440

(上二品是說修定有五神通的功德)(在戒定慧三學中,至此說完定學)

 

第十四  說蘊品······························································443

(下面十品是說慧學的)

慧的總說································································443

一、什麼是慧····························································443

二、什麼是慧的語義····················································444

三、什麼是慧的相、味、現起、足處··································445

四、慧有幾種·····························································445

(一)一法(一種)···············································445

(二)二法(五種)················································445

(三)三法(四種)················································446

(四)四法(二種)················································448

五、當如何修習·························································451

慧地之一──五蘊的解釋·············································451

(一)色蘊··························································451

1)釋二十四所造色···································452

2)色的一法乃至五法··································459

(二)識蘊·························································461

1)八十九心··············································462

2)八十九心的十四作用······························468

(三)受蘊·························································472

(四)想蘊··························································473

(五)行蘊························································474

1)與諸善心相應的行································474

2)與諸不善心相應的行·····························480

3)與異熟無記心相應的行···························484

4)與唯作無記心相應的行···························484

(六)關於五蘊的雜論··········································485

1)五蘊的經文解釋····································485

2)關於五蘊的擇說·································490

1)以次第·············································490

2)以差別·············································491

3)以不增減··········································492

4)以譬喻·············································492

5)以二種所見······································492

6)以如是見者的利益成就······················493

 

第十五  說處界品····························································495

慧地之二──釋十二處················································495

(一)以義··························································495

(二)以相·························································496

(三)以限量·····················································496

(四)以次第·····················································497

(五)以簡略與詳細············································497

(六)以所見·······················································498

慧地之三──釋十八界···············································498

(一)以義·························································499

(二)以相等·······················································500

(三)以次第·······················································500

(四)以限量······················································500

(五)以數··························································502

(六)以緣··························································502

(七)以所見·······················································503

 

第十六  說根諦品···························································505

慧地之四──釋二十二根·············································505

(一)以義·························································505

(二)以相等······················································506

(三)以次第······················································506

(四)以別無別···················································507

(五)以作用······················································507

(六)以地·························································508

慧地之五──釋四諦··················································508

(一)以分別······················································508

(二)以分解······················································509

(三)以相等的區別·············································510

(四)以義··························································510

(五)以義的要略················································511

(六)以不增減···················································512

(七)以次第·····················································512

(八)以生等的決定··············································513

1)釋苦····················································513

2)釋集····················································521

3)釋苦之滅··············································522

4)釋導至苦滅之道·····································525

(九)以智作用···················································526

(十)以內含的區別·············································527

(十一)以譬喻···················································527

(十二)以四法(四句分別)···································528

(十三)以空······················································528

(十四)以一種等················································529

(十五)以同分、異分···········································531

 

第十七  說慧地品···························································533

慧地之六──釋緣起··················································533

(一)緣起的語義之一··········································533

(二)緣起的語義之二··········································536

(三)各緣起支的解釋·········································538

1)無明緣行··············································539

1)以說法的差別···································539

2)以義·················································542

3)以相等·············································544

4)以一種等···········································545

5)以緣起支的差別··································546

1)釋二十四緣·······························549

2)無明與行的緣的關係····················559

2)行緣識·················································563

1)行與識的關係···································564

2)異熟識的轉起及結生的活動···············565

3)三界諸趣的業與結生···························566

4)結生識與諸色法的關係·······················570

5)行與識的緣的關係·······························576

3)識緣名色··············································578

1)以名色的分別···································579

2)以於有等的轉起··································579

3)以攝················································581

4)以緣的方法·······································582

4)名色緣六處···········································583

1)名緣················································584

2)色緣·················································585

3)名色緣·············································586

5)六處緣觸··············································586

6)觸緣受·················································588

7)受緣愛·················································589

8)愛緣取················································590

1)以義分別··········································590

2)以法的廣略·······································591

3)依次序·············································592

9)取緣有···············································593

1)以義·················································593

2)以法················································593

3)以有用·············································594

4)以區分·············································595

5)以攝·················································595

6)以什麼為什麼的緣·······························595

10 有緣生、生緣老死等····························597

(四)十二緣起的雜論···········································598

1)十二緣起的特質····································598

1)無明由愁等而成就·······························598

2)有輪而不知其始··································599

3)沒有作者和受者··································600

4)十二種的性空故為空···························600

2)三世兩重因果·······································600

1)二種有輪的三時··································600

2)三連結及四攝類··································601

3)二十行相的輻····································601

4)三輪轉·············································603

3)緣起的決定說········································603

1)以諦的發生·······································603

2)以作用··············································604

3)以遮止··············································604

4)以譬喻··············································604

5)以甚深的差別····································605

6)以理法的差別····································606

(以上十四至十七品,是說慧的地。以下五品,是說慧的體)

 

第十八  說見清淨品························································609

慧體之一──見清淨···················································609

(一)名色的觀察················································609

1)簡略的方法···········································609

2)四界的差別法·······································610

3)十八界的觀察法····································611

4)十二處的觀察法····································612

5)五蘊的觀察法·······································612

6)簡單的觀察法·······································612

(二)現起非色法的方法·······································613

1)由觸現起非色法·····································614

2)由受現起非色法·····································614

3)由識現起非色法·····································614

(三)依經典及譬喻而確定名色·······························615

 

第十九  說度疑清淨品·····················································621

慧體之二──度疑清淨················································621

(一)把握名色之緣一···········································621

1)把握色身之緣········································621

2)把握名身之緣·······································622

(二)把握名色之緣二··········································622

(三)把握名色之緣三··········································623

(四)把握名色之緣四···········································623

(五)把握名色之緣五···········································623

(業輪轉──包含十二種業)························624

(六)遍知智──法住智·······································626

 

第二十  說道非道智見清淨品·············································629

慧體之三──道非道智見清淨·······································629

三遍知·····························································629

(一)關於聚的思惟的聖典····································630

(二)以五蘊無常等的思惟···································632

1)各各思惟的十一種·································632

2)以四十行相思惟五蘊·····························633

(三)色與非色的思惟法········································635

1)以九行相而使諸根銳利···························635

2)色的思惟法··········································636

1)業等起色···········································636

2)心等起色··········································637

3)食等起色··········································638

4)時節等起色·······································639

3)非色的思惟法········································639

(四)提起三相····················································640

1)以色的七法··········································641

1)以取捨·············································641

2)以年齡的增長而消滅···························641

3)以食所成··········································645

4)以時節所成·······································646

5)以業生·············································646

6)以心等起··········································646

7)以法性色··········································647

2)以非色七法···········································648

1)以聚················································648

2)以雙················································648

3)以剎那·············································648

4)以次第·············································649

5)以除見··············································649

6)以去慢··············································649

7)以破欲··············································649

(五)十八大觀···················································650

(六)生滅隨觀智·················································651

1)五蘊的生滅觀──五十相·························652

2)以緣及剎那的生滅觀·····························653

1)四諦之理···········································653

2)緣起等的種種理與相··························653

(七)十種觀的染·················································654

1)光明···················································655

2)智······················································656

3)喜·······················································656

4)輕安····················································656

5)樂······················································657

6)勝解···················································657

7)策勵····················································657

8)現起···················································657

9)捨······················································657

10 ··················································657

確定三諦··························································659

 

第二十一  說行道智見清淨品···········································661

慧體之四──行道智見清淨··········································661

(一)生滅隨觀智·················································661

(二)壞隨觀智···················································662

(三)怖畏現起智················································666

(四)過患隨觀智·················································668

(五)厭離隨觀智················································671

(六)欲解脫智···················································672

(七)審察隨觀智················································672

(八)行捨智······················································674

1觀空···················································674

一行相空與二行相空···························674

四行相空···········································674

六行相空············································675

八行相空············································675

十行相空············································676

十二相空···········································676

四十二相空·········································676

2行捨智的結果······································677

1)三解脫門·········································678

2)為七聖者的各別之緣··························680

3行捨智的三名······································681

4至出起觀··············································682

5)至出起觀的譬喻····································683

6行捨智的決定······································686

1)決定覺支、道支、禪支的差別···············687

2)決定行道的差別··································688

3)決定解脫的差別··································689

(九)隨順智······················································690

 

第二十二  說智見清淨品·················································693

慧體之五  智見清淨··················································693

(一)四道智·······················································693

1)須陀洹道智·········································693

須陀洹果············································695

十九種觀察········································696

2)斯陀含道智·········································697

斯陀含果············································697

3)阿那含道智·········································697

阿那含果············································698

4)阿羅漢道智··········································698

阿羅漢果············································698

(二)智見清淨的威力···········································698

1)圓滿三十七菩提分·······························699

2)出起與力的結合···································702

3)斷那應斷的諸法····································703

4)作用····················································710

1)遍知················································714

2)··················································715

3)··················································717

4)修習················································718

(說慧體畢)

 

第二十三  說修慧的功德品···············································721

六、修慧有什麼功德····················································721

(一)摧破種種煩惱··············································721

(二)嘗受聖果之味·············································721

(三)可能入於滅定··············································725

(四)成就應供養者等等········································732

結論·············································································735

斯里蘭卡佛教史年表

漢巴名詞索引·


譯前言

覺音(Buddhaghosa)所著的《清淨道論》(Visuddhimagga),是綜述南傳上座部佛教思想的一部最詳細、最完整、最著名的作品,是研究南傳上座部教理的必讀之書。覺音引用了整個南傳三藏要點並參考斯里蘭卡當時流傳的許多古代三藏義疏和史書而寫成此論。所以《大史》(Mahāvasa)稱它「為三藏和義疏的精要」;德國的唯里曼.蓋格(Wilhelm Geiger)教授也說它「是一部佛教百科全書」,亞洲南方各國的佛教學者都要研究這部名著,其他的世界佛教學者也都很重視研究它。讀了此書,可以了解南傳佛教的主要教理;也可以看到一些當時當地的社會、經濟、歷史等問題。尤其值得一提的是作者在列舉當時各國的上等布類中有中國的絲綢(Cīnapaṭṭa--支那絲綢),這在經論中是難得見到的資料。這部巴利三藏的代表作,在世界各國有多種文字的譯本。

覺音,公元五世紀中葉人,是南傳巴利語系佛教的一位傑出學者,他用巴利文寫了很多書,對上座部佛教有很大貢獻。因為在覺音時代,印度大部分的佛教學者都已採用梵文,巴利文佛教業已衰落,只有斯里蘭卡和菩提場的比丘依然忠於巴利文。由於覺音的努力,巴利文這一系的佛典古語學才又活躍起來。

根據《大史》記載,覺音出生於北印度菩提場附近的婆羅門族,通吠陀學,曉工巧明,精於辯論。在菩提場一座斯里蘭卡人建造的寺院出家,從離婆多(Revata)大長老學習巴利語三藏。受了比丘戒後,便寫了一部書叫《發智》(Ñāṇodaya)。為了進一步深入研究,他在摩訶男(Mahānāma)王時代(409431來到斯里蘭卡的首都*羅陀補羅Anurādhapura),住在大寺Mahāvihāra),從僧伽波羅(Saghapāla)長老學習三藏經典和義疏。在此期間,因為接受僧伽波羅的請求,覺音首先撰成著名的《清淨道論》。繼之,大寺僧眾即把所有僧伽羅文的三藏注疏都供給他做參考,要他寫更多的書。於是覺音便移居根他伽羅寺(Ganthakara vihāra),埋頭苦幹,長期從事著作,幾乎對全部巴利三藏都做了注解。其中有律藏的注釋《普悅》(Samatapasādi-kā善見律毗婆娑)、波羅提木叉的注釋《析疑》(Kakhāvitara-ṇī)、長部經注《善吉祥光》(Sumagalavilāsinī)、中部經注《破除疑障》(Papañcasudanī)、相應部經注《顯揚心義》(Saratthapakāsinī)、增支部經注《滿足希求》(Manorathapuraṇī)、小部第一(小誦)第二(經集)注《勝義光明》(Paramat-thajotikā)、《法聚論》注《殊勝義》(Atthasālinī)、《分別論》注《迷惑冰消》(Sammohavinodanī)、其餘五部論注《五論釋義》(Pañcappakaraatthakathā)、《本生注》(Jātakaṭṭha-vaṇṇanā)、《法句譬喻》(Dhammapadaṭṭhakathā)。後來他又回印度朝禮聖菩提樹,不知所終。相傳在柬埔寨有一座古寺名覺音寺,是他去世的地方。

覺音寫《清淨道論》,是嚴格地按照當時大寺派的思想體系來著述的。其組織的次第和內容,有許多地方與優波底沙(Upa-tissa)所著的《解脫道論》相似。優波底沙約早於覺音二百餘年。本論除了序論和結論外,全書分為二十三品,依照戒、定、慧三大主題次第敘述,即前二品說戒,中間十一品說定,後十品說慧。

前二品,主要是說明怎樣持戒,戒的種類,持戒有什麼好處,怎樣自願地受持十三頭陀支等。就是說如何嚴格地遵循比丘僧團的生活方式。作者在評論持戒的出發點時說:「以愛為出發點,為求生命享受而持戒者為下,為求自己解脫而持戒者為中,為求一切眾生解脫而受持的波羅蜜戒為上」。可見作者也接受了當時發展中的某些大乘佛教的思想影響。

中間十一品,主要是敘述十遍、十不淨、十隨念、四梵住、四無色定、食厭想、四界差別等四十種定境的修習方法。這裏對於怎樣去修每一種定,都說得很清楚,有心者可以按照這些方法去實行。

後十品說慧學,是本書最重要部分,集南傳佛教論藏的主要內容和七部論以後發展出來的教理。其主要論題有:五蘊、十二處、十八界、二十二根、四諦、十二緣起等。這裡解釋物質方面的色蘊,有二十四種所造色;解釋精神方面的識蘊,有八十九心、心識過程中的十四種作用和五十二心所法;解釋緣起的各種條件有二十四緣等。這些都是南傳上座部佛教的特色。

這部漢文譯本的完成,其經歷是曲折的。早在一九五三至一九五六年間,我在斯里蘭卡從巴利文學者般若難陀(Paṇḍit P. Paññānanda)專研《清淨道論》時,即將每日所學的論文譯為漢文。其漢譯手稿,於一九五七年隨身帶回國內。後因中國佛學院部分同學需要參考,未經修改便謄印一百部,其中錯誤甚多。在一次火災中,所存全部手稿和油印本均被焚燬,化為灰燼。直至一九七八年始從別處找回一部幸存的油印本,方能重新據此而從事校對整理和修改工作,於一九八年底告成。翻譯這部論著,斯國人民認為是交流中斯文化的部分工作,曾在該國『蘭卡之光報』上詳細地發表過消息。國內一些學者亦重視此事。不過由於個人才疏學淺,在譯文上錯誤之處實所難免,希望讀者指正。

 

                                                譯者


校訂序

葉均居士所翻譯的《清淨道論》乃是以直譯為主,雖然比不上玄奘大師的精譯,但仍然不失論文原意,實在不可多得!

在漢譯簡體字版中,本來是附有巴利文底本頁碼的,但是在繁體字版中,卻把它省略了。當在注釋引到底本頁碼時,就無法查閱了;並且讀者若要查閱對讀各種版本、譯本時,則難免有些不方便,所以有再附上底本頁碼的必要性。

漢譯本中,有許多錯字和漏譯幾個段落,這也是在所難免的。當末學在對讀本論時,發現有不少須要修正的地方,但是為了尊重譯者原意,除非很明顯的錯誤,否則不予修改,而是以補上漏譯的部分為主。﹝註:經十方核對巴利文版、簡體字版、英文版、日文版提出資料佐證錯誤及利益閱讀等原因,故採取直接訂正本文之原則。﹞

巴利聖典至今仍然是南方上座部佛教徒所依循的教典,可惜向來被北傳佛教徒視為小乘而輕視它。巴利聖典不僅有自部完整的三藏,更有其完整的《註釋書》和各種《義疏》;《清淨道論》也有《註釋書》和《大義疏》兩種。期勉有志研習巴利聖教的同修,能深入修學,將來把它們一一地翻譯出來,俾益來學。

 

Bhikkhu Santagavesaka釋本寂

於菩提學苑

 


 

一、本書是依據巴利聖典協會(Pāli Text Society)出版的羅馬字體本巴利原文譯為漢文的,並以錫蘭字體和暹羅字體版本為參考。

二、翻譯本書時,以錫蘭出版的英譯本The Path of Purification by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli和英國出版的英譯本The Path of Purity by Pe Maung Tin以及日本出版的水野弘元的日譯本《清淨道論》為參考。

三、本書的注釋,是根據巴利原本的注釋、巴利文注解和各種譯本的注釋而注釋的。

四、巴利原本有不少錯字或遣漏之處,翻譯本書時都參考別的版本一一加以改正或補充,有的加注說明,也有許多未曾注出。

五、為便於學者可與巴利原文對讀之故,本書仍以直譯為主。

六、書中所有圓括弧(  )內的字,都是譯者根據文意加入的。

七、書中行頭或行尾的123等數字,是巴利文原本的頁碼且啟始字加底線表示。因為英、日等各種譯本,都附有這種頁碼,為了便於互相參看,保留這個數字是必要的。

八、文中插入的註腳(123),代表本書注釋的符號。

九、書中所寫的錫蘭,今名斯里蘭卡;暹羅,今名泰國。為了和過去的典籍一致,故本書仍然採用舊名。

十、本書中的人名,地名和許多其他事物的名稱,有的義譯,有的音譯,有的仿古,有的創新。但對音譯和義譯的名詞,古今譯者的翻譯多有不同,故作(名詞索引)於書後以供參考。

十一、注中經常引用《大正》某卷某頁,是根據日譯本寫的。我國各圖書館保存有不少《大正藏》,仍然可以參考。

十二、本論和《解脫道論》有些關係,所以在注釋中舉出一些類似之處以供參考。

十三、注中所舉原巴利文經典,絕大多數是用略語。茲列略語表於下:

 

A.=Aguttaranikāya

《增支部》

A.A.=Manorathapūraṇī

《滿足希求》(增支部注)

Car.=Cariyāpiaka

《行藏》

Cnd.=Cullaniddesa

《小義釋》

D.=Dīghanikāya

《長部》

Da.=Sumagalavilāsinī

《善吉祥光》(長部注)

Dhp.=Dhammapada

《法句經》

Dhp.A.=Dhammapada Aṭṭhakathā

《法句譬喻》

Dhs.=Dhammasagaṇī

《法聚論》(《法集論》)

It.=Itivuttaka

《如是語》

J.=Jātaka

《本生經》

Jāt.=Jātakaṭṭha vaṇṇanā

《本生經注》

Kh.=Khuddakapātha

《小誦》

Kv.=Kathāvatthu

《論事》

M.=Majjhimanikāya

《中部》

Mil.=Milindapañha

《彌陵陀問經》

Mnd.=Mahāniddesa

《大義釋》

Mnda.=Saddhammapajjotikā

《正法光明》

Nid.=Niddesa

《義釋》

PP.=Puggalapaññati

《人施設論》

Ps.=Paisambhidāmagga

《無礙解道》

Ps.A.=Paisambhidāmagga-Aṭṭhakathā

《無礙解道義釋》

S.=Sayuttanikāya

《相應部》

SA.=Saratthappakāsinī

《顯揚心義》(相應部注)

Sn.=Suttanipāta

《經集》

Tika.=Tikapaṭṭhāna

《三顯示》

Thag.=Theragāthā

《長老頌》(《長老偈》)

Ud.=Udāna

《自說經》

Uda.=Paramatthadīpanī

《勝義燈》

Vin.=Vinaya

《毗奈耶(律)》

Vibh.=Vibhaga

《分別論》

 

 


 

             無婆伽梵.阿羅漢.三藐三菩陀           1

 

經中這樣說:

住戒有慧人,修習心與慧,

有勤智比丘,彼當解此結。1

為什麼要這樣說呢?據說:世尊在舍衛城時,於夜分中,來一天子,為除自己的疑惑,提出這樣的問題:

內結與外結,人為結縛結,

瞿曇我問汝,誰當解此結?2

這問題的大意是:「結」是締結,與愛網同義。因為上下於色等所緣境界而屢屢生起愛著,猶如竹叢中的竹枝糾纏而稱為枝網,故名為結。因為對於自物他物,或於自身他身,或於內處及外處 3而生愛著,故說「內結與外結」。以如是生起愛著,故說「人為結縛結」。譬如竹叢為枝結所纏,一切有情為愛網所纏結,這

便是人被結纏、纏縛、締結的意思。於這個結的問題,所以「      2

瞿曇我問汝」。瞿曇是稱呼世尊的姓。「誰當解此結」,是問誰能解此纏縛於三界之內的堅牢之結。

天子這樣問了之後,那位於諸法中得無礙智行者、天中之天、帝釋中之勝帝釋、梵天中之勝梵天、證四無畏、具十力、得無障智及慧眼的世尊,為答此義而說此偈:

住戒有慧人,修習心與慧,

有勤智比丘,彼當解此結。

大仙(佛)所說之偈的戒等種種義,

現在我要如實的解釋:

對於那在勝者(世尊)教中已得難得的出家,

不得如實而知包攝戒等安穩正直的清淨道,

雖然欲求清淨而精進,

可是不得到達清淨的瑜伽者;

我今依照大寺住者4所示的理法,

為說能使他們喜悅極淨決擇的清淨道;

是故一切欲求清淨者,

應當諦聽我的恭敬說。

此中:「清淨」,是除了一切垢穢而究竟清淨的涅槃。到達清淨的道路為清淨道。「道」,是至彼的方便。這便是現在我要解說的清淨道。

有些地方,清淨道只是毗鉢舍那(觀)的意思。所謂:

一切行無常,若以慧觀見,

得厭離於苦,此乃清淨道。5

3              些地方,則作禪與慧的意思。所謂:

禪慧兼有者,彼實近涅槃。6

     有些地方,則為業等的意思。所謂:

業與明及正法,戒與最上活命,

人依此等清淨,不由姓與財淨。7

有些地方,則為戒等的意思。所謂:

一切戒圓具,有慧善等持,

精進勤勇者,渡難渡暴流。8

有些地方,是念住等的意思。所謂:「諸比丘,有情的清淨……作證涅槃的一乘之道,即四念住。」9四正勤等亦然。

但在這裏,佛陀解答天子的問題,是以戒等的意義來顯示的。現在來略釋本論最初的頌意:

「住戒」,即安住於戒中。這裏指圓滿(受持)戒律的人而稱為住戒者,所以圓滿戒律便是住戒的意義。「人」是有情。「有慧人」,是由業生三因結生的慧10,為有慧者。「修習心與慧」,是修習三摩地(定)和毗鉢舍那(觀)的意思。這裏是用「心」字來顯示三摩地,以「慧」字而名毗鉢舍那。「有勤」,是有精進的人。因為精進可以燒盡一切煩惱,故稱為熱(勤),具此熱力的人稱為有勤。「有智」,智名為慧,即具有那智慧的意思。這句(有智的智)是指含藏慧。在解答問題的這個頌文裏,曾有三次說到慧:第一(有慧人的慧)為生慧(生來的慧),第二(修習心與慧的慧)為觀慧,第三(有勤智的智)是主導一切所作的含藏慧11。見輪廻而生怖畏者為「比丘」。「彼當解此結」,「彼」,是具備此戒及由心字所顯示的三摩地與三種慧和勤

等六法的比丘。如一人立於大地上,舉起最利的刀而斬除大竹      4

叢一樣,他則站於戒地上,以精進力策勵於含藏慧之手,舉起由定石磨得很利的觀慧之劍,而解除斬斷及摧毀使他自己(的諸蘊)相續沉淪的一切愛結。他在修(四沙門)道的剎那叫做解結;在證(四沙門)果的剎那,他便是天界和人界最上應供的解結者。所以世尊說:

住戒有慧人,修習心與慧,

有勤智比丘,彼當解此結。

頌中所說「有慧人」的慧,不是現在所能造作的,那是由宿世業力所成就的。「有勤」,是說常作精勤的人。「有智」,是有正智的行者。「心慧」,即止觀。這便是說有勤智的比丘,既持戒而又修止觀的意思。當知在這一頌,世尊是用戒定慧三門顯示清淨道的。

進一層說,這頌也是闡明三學,三種善教,為三明等的近依(強因),避二邊(極端)而行中道,超越惡趣等的方便,以三相而斷煩惱,違犯等的對治,三雜染的淨化,以及為須陀洹等的原因。怎樣闡明的呢?

一、(三學)這裏的戒是闡明增上戒學;定是增上心學;慧是增上慧學。

二、(三種善教)戒是闡明初善;所謂:「何為初善法?即是極淨戒」12,又如「諸惡莫作」13等語,都是說明以戒教為首

5  的;復次得無後悔之德故為善14。定則闡明中善;如「眾善行」15等語,是說明定教為中;又得有神變等德故為善。慧是闡明後善教;如「自淨其意,是諸佛教」16等語,是說明以慧為最上及最後;又因那慧對於好惡的事物視為平等故為善。所謂:

譬如堅石山,不為風所動,

毀譽不能動,智者亦如是。17

三、(為三明等的近依)戒是闡明為三明的近依(強因),因為只有依於戒的成就而得通達三明的。定是闡明為六神通的近依,因為只有依於定的成就而得六神通的。慧是闡明為無礙解的近依,因為只有依於慧的成就而得達四無礙解,不是由於別的原因所成就的。

四、(避二邊而行中道)戒是闡明廻避稱為沉溺欲樂的極端行為。定是闡明廻避稱為自苦的極端行為。慧是闡明行於中道之教。

    五、(超越惡趣等的方便)戒是闡明超越惡趣的方便。定是超越欲界的方便。慧是超越一切有的方便。

六、(以三相而斷煩惱)戒是闡明以彼分斷而斷煩惱18,定是以鎮伏斷而斷煩惱19,慧是以正斷而斷煩惱20

    七、(違犯等的對治)戒是諸惑違犯21的對治。定是纏的對治,慧是隨眠的對治。

、(三雜染的淨化)戒是闡明惡行雜染的淨化。定是愛雜        6

染的淨化,慧是惡見雜染的淨化。

    九、(為須陀洹等的原因)戒是闡明為須陀洹果及斯陀含果的原因。定是阿那含果的原因。慧是阿羅漢果的原因。因為證得須陀洹的人稱為戒圓滿者,斯陀含果亦然。證阿那含果的稱為定圓滿者。證阿羅漢果的稱為慧圓滿者。

因為這樣,故說此頌也是闡明三學、三種善教、為三明等的近依、避二邊而行中道、超越惡趣等的方便,以三相而斷煩惱、違犯等的對治,三雜染的淨化,以及為須陀洹等的原因的九類並其他像這樣的三德22

這是序論。

 


  說戒品

雖以如是包攝諸德的戒定慧三門而顯示清淨道,但太簡略,為了饒益一切(眾生)是不夠的,所以再加詳細敘述,這裏先設些關於戒的問題:

一、什麼是戒?

二、什麼是戒的語義?

三、什麼是戒的相、味、現起、足處?

四、什麼是戒的功德?

五、戒有幾種?

六、什麼是戒的雜染?

七、什麼是淨化?

解答如下:

 

一、什麼是戒

 

什麼是戒?即離殺生等或實行於義務行1者的思(意志)等之法。《無礙解道》說2:「什麼是戒?即思戒,心所戒,律儀

,不犯戒」。                                                                                             7

此中:完成不殺等或完成義務行者的思名為「思戒」。離殺生等的離3名為「心所戒」。其次捨殺生等的七業道4之思名為「思戒」。「捨貪欲而離貪心住」5等所表現的無貪、無瞋、正見之法名為「心所戒」。

「律儀戒」,當知有五種律儀:即別解脫律儀,念律儀,智律儀,忍律儀,精進律儀。這裏「圓滿具足別解脫律儀」6,是說關於別解脫律儀。「防護眼根,成就眼根律儀」7,是「念律儀」。

世尊對阿耆多說:

世界一切的瀑流,

念是他們的防禦。

我說諸流的防護,

他們當以慧來遮。8

這是「智律儀」;關於正當的使用資具等也包括在這裏面。其次「對寒暑忍耐」9等的表述為「忍律儀」。「不容生起欲尋」10等的表述為「精進律儀」;活命遍淨戒也是包括在這裏面的。上面這五種律儀,以及怖畏罪惡的善男子離其所遭的惡事,一切都是律儀戒。

「不犯戒」,即受持戒律之人的身口等不違犯於戒。

這裏解答關於什麼是戒的問題。

8              他的問題:

 

二、什麼是戒的語義

 

戒為戒行的意思。為什麼稱為戒行?即正持──以身業等善持戒律而不雜亂的意思;或確持──保持一切善法的意思。此二義實為通曉文字法者所允許的。然而也有人解釋戒為頭義及清涼等義的11

 

三、什麼是戒的相、味、現起、足處12

    

(相)戒雖有多種,唯戒行為相。

          猶如種種色,可見性為相。

譬如青黃等色,雖有種種的區別,而色處的特相總不出於可見性。同樣的,戒雖有思等的種種區別,總不出於以正持身業等及保持善法的戒行為相,所以說戒之相為戒行。

(味)摧毀諸惡戒,具足諸善德,

作用成就義,是即名為味。

此戒能摧毀諸惡戒,是以作用之義為味;其次具諸無罪之德,是以成就之義為味。然在相等之義的味,只可說作用或成就為味(不是食味等的味)。

(現起、足處)智者說淨為現起,

             解釋慚愧為足處。

謂「身淨、語淨、意淨」13,這是說淨為此戒的現起。因
9 為由淨性的顯現而取為狀態故。智者曾說慚與愧為戒的足處。足處是       近因的意思;因為有慚愧才能產生及存續戒律,如果沒有慚愧便不能產生及存續戒律。

當知這是戒的相、味、現起、足處。

 

四、什麼是戒的功德

 

什麼是戒的功德?如獲得無後悔等的種種功德。經中說:「阿難,一切善戒具有無後悔的目的和功德」14。又說:「諸居士,持戒者的具戒,得此五種功德。云何五種?諸居士,具戒的持戒者,因不放逸,得大財聚,這是持戒者具戒的第一功德。復次諸居士,具戒的持戒者,得揚善名,這是持戒者具戒的第二功德。復次諸居士,具戒的持戒者,無論親近一切團體大眾、剎帝利眾、婆羅門眾、居士眾、或沙門眾,在接近之時,得無怖畏羞慚,這是持戒者具戒的第三功德。復次諸居士,具戒的持戒者,臨命終時,得不昏昧,這是持戒者具戒的第四功德。復次諸居士,具戒的持戒者,此身壞死之後,得生善趣天界,這是持戒者具戒的第五功德」。15

又如「諸比丘!若有比丘,願為諸同梵行者所喜愛、歡悅、尊重、禮敬,彼當圓滿一切戒」16。這都是說始於喜愛歡悅等而終於漏盡的諸戒的功德。

10            這便是無後悔等種種戒的功德,有:

佛教給與善男子的住處,

除了戒,更無別的了,

戒德的分量,誰能說得盡呢?

眾生的垢穢,

不是恒河、夜摩那河、沙羅婆河,

亦非沙羅伐底河、阿羯羅伐底河,

也不是摩西河、摩訶奈地河的流水,

所能洗得清淨的,

唯有戒水能淨有情的塵垢。

不是帶來有雨之雲的涼風,

亦非黃色的旃檀、首飾的明珠,

也不是明月照射柔和的光輝,

能使此世眾生熱惱的安寧,

唯有善護聖戒能使熱惱究竟的清涼。

戒香不但順風送,也得逆風熏,

那裏還能找到這樣的香呢?

為升天的階梯,入涅槃的城門,

那裏還有別的可以比擬戒的呢?

國王雖然盛飾摩尼珠,

不如行者以戒莊嚴的光輝。

戒能摧毀自責等的怖畏,

具戒常生名望和笑顏。

戒為諸德的根本,一切罪惡的破壞者,

當知這是略說諸戒的功德。

 

五、戒有幾種

 

現在來解答戒有幾種的問題:

(一)先依一切戒自己的戒相為一種。

(二)1依作持、止持有二種,(2)如是依等正行、初梵行,(3)離、不離,(4)依止、不依止,(5)時限、終身,(6)有限制、無限制,(7)世間及出世間有二種。

)(1)依下、中、上有三種,(2)如是依我增上、世間 11

增上、法增上,(3)執取、不執取、安息,(4)清淨、不清淨、疑惑,(5)學、無學及非學非無學等有三種。

(四)(1)依退分、住分、勝分、決擇分有四種,(2)如是依比丘、比丘尼、未具足、在家戒,(3)自然、慣行、法性、宿因戒,(4)別解脫律儀、根律儀、活命遍淨、資具依止戒等有四種。

(五)(1)依制限遍淨戒等有五種;這在《無礙解道》裏說過:「五種戒,即制限遍淨戒、無制限遍淨戒、圓滿遍淨戒、無執取遍淨戒、安息遍淨戒」17。(2)如是依斷、離、思、律儀、不犯等有五種。此中:

)(一法)關於一種分類的意義,已如前說易知。

)(二法)關於二種分類的:1)(作持、止持)世尊說「此事應作」!這樣制定給與照行的學處,便是「作持」(戒);又說「此事不應作」!那樣禁止不作的便是「止持」(戒)18。其語義如下:具戒者行於此中,為圓滿戒而動作是作持;以此(止持戒)而遵守於禁止的是止持。又作持由信而起的精進所成就,止持由信所成就。這是作持、止持二種。

2)(等正行、初梵行)第二種二法:「等正行」,為最上的行為。等正行即等正行戒,或等正行是制定關於應行的等正行戒。這除了活命第八19的戒外,其他的都是同義語。「初梵行」20是說為道梵行的初步。活命第八即是此戒的同義語。因為是修行者最初必須清淨的部分,故說為道的初步。如說「首先他的身

12     業、語業和活命已極清淨」21。或者說微細的學處為正行戒;

其餘的為初梵行戒。或以兩種毗崩伽22中所包攝的戒為初梵行;犍度品23所包攝的義務為等正行。由於等正行的成就而初梵行戒才能成就。故說「諸比丘!若彼比丘不得等正行法的圓滿而能得初梵行法的圓滿者,實無是處」24。這是等正行、初梵行二種。

3)(離、不離)於第三種二法中,離殺生等為「離戒」;其餘的思等為「不離戒」,這是離、不離二種。

4)(依止、不依止)於第四種二法中,依有愛依、見依二種。如說「由於此戒,我將生天或生於某天」,25為了成就這種目的而持戒的名為「愛依止」;如果他想「依此戒而得淨」26,具此(以此為)淨之見而持戒的為「見依止」。其次出世間戒及可作出世間的因緣的世間戒為「不依止」。這是依止、不依止二種。

5)(時限、終身)於第五種二法中,限定一段時間受持的為「時限(戒)」;盡其生命受持的為「終身(戒)」。這是時限、終身二種。

6)(有限制、無限制)於第六種二法中,有利養、名譽、親戚、肢體、生命的條件限制的,名為「有限制(戒)」;相反的為「無限制(戒)」27。在《無礙解道》也說:「什麼為有限制?即為利養限制戒,為名譽限制戒,為親戚限制戒,為肢體限制戒,為生命限制戒。什麼是利養限制戒?世間有人為利養因,

為利養緣,為利養故,違犯其受持的學處,這為利養限制戒」   13

28。餘者類推可知。對於無限制戒也有解答:「什麼是不為利養限制戒?世間有人為利養因,為利養緣,為利養故,甚至不生違犯其所受持的學處的心,何況違犯?這是不為利養限制戒。」29餘者類推可知。這是有限制、無限制二種。

7)(世間、出世間)在第七種二法:一切有漏戒為「世間戒」;無漏戒為「出世間戒」。此中:世間戒能使有(生命)的殊勝,亦為出離三有的資糧。所謂:「毗奈耶意在律儀,律儀意在無後悔,無後悔意在愉悅,愉悅意在於喜,喜意在輕安,輕安意在於樂,樂意在於定,定意在如實知見,如實知見意在厭離,厭離意在離欲,離欲意在解脫,解脫意在解脫知見,解脫知見意在無取涅槃。為此而說律,為此而討論,為此而親近學習,為此而諦聽,即是為此無執取心的解脫」。30出世間戒能使出離於有漏,並為觀察智的基地。

這是世間、出世間二種。

)(三法)於三法中:1)(下、中、上)先說第一種三法:如果由下等的欲、心、精進、觀(四神足)所建立的戒為「下」;由中等的欲等所建立的為「中」;由殊勝的欲等所建立的為「上」。為求名譽而受持的為下;為求福果而受持的為中;但依「此是應作」的聖性而受持的為上。或想「我是具戒者,其他的比丘都是惡戒者、惡法者」,有這種自舉輕他的染污者為下;無此染污者為中;出世間戒為上。或者以愛為出發點,為求生命享受而持戒者為下;為求自己解脫而持戒者為中;為求一切眾生解脫而受持的波羅蜜戒為上。這是下中上三種。

2)(我增上、世間增上、法增上)於第二種三法中:為求

14     棄捨自己不適當的,為自尊自而受持的為「我增上」(戒)。

欲求避免世間的批評,欲為世間尊重及尊重世間而受持的為「世間增上」(戒)。為求恭敬大法、為尊重法而受持的為「法增上(戒)」31。這是我增上等三種。

3)(執取、不執取、安息)於第三種三法中:如前二種法中所說的依止,因他以愛見而執取,故名「執取(戒)」。若為良善凡夫之道的資糧,並與諸有學道相應的為「不執取(戒)」。若與諸有學果及無學果相應的為「安息(戒)」32。這是執取等三種。

4)(清淨、不清淨、有疑)於第四種三法中:諸戒完具不犯罪者,或犯了罪而更懺悔者為「清淨(戒)」。犯了罪不懺悔的為「不清淨(戒)」。對於犯罪的事物(對象),犯的那種罪,是否有犯罪的行為而生疑惑者的戒為「有疑戒」。是故諸瑜伽者(修行者)應該淨化其不清淨的戒,不對有疑惑的事物而採取行動,並應除其疑惑。這樣他將得到安樂。這是清淨等三種。

5)(學、無學、非學非無學)於第五種三法中:與四聖道及三沙門果相應的戒為「學(戒)」。與阿羅漢果相應的戒為「無學(戒)」。其餘的為「非學非無學(戒)」。這是學等三種。

但在《無礙解道》裏把世間眾生的天性也說為戒。例如說:這是樂戒(樂觀性),這是苦戒(悲觀性),這是爭論戒(好爭論的),這是莊嚴戒(好裝飾的)等。因此在那裏說「有三種戒,即善戒、不善戒、無記戒」33,把善等也作為三種戒說。當知像那裏所舉的「不善」,與本論所講的戒相等的意義是沒有一種可以相合的,所以本論不取。

是故當依上述的方法而知三種戒。

)(四法)於四法中:1退分、住分、勝分、決擇分)第一種四法:

親近惡戒者不與持戒的為友,

無知者不見犯事的過咎,

15                     滿邪思惟,諸根不防護,

此人必然生起「退分戒」。

悅於此世有戒的成就,

對於業處(定境)無意而精勤,

以戒自滿,更不向上而努力,

這是比丘的「住分戒」成就。

圓滿了戒,更加為定而努力,

這是比丘的「勝分戒」成就。

不以戒滿足,更為厭離而努力,

這是比丘「決擇分戒」34的成就。

這是退分等四種。

2)(比丘、比丘尼、未具足、在家)於第二種四法中:制定關於比丘的學處,或者為比丘尼所制定的學處亦應為比丘所守護的戒為「比丘戒」。制定關於比丘尼的學處,或者為比丘所制定的學處亦應為比丘尼所守護的戒為「比丘尼戒」。沙彌、沙彌尼的十戒為「未具足戒」。優婆塞、優婆夷的常戒五學處,若可能時增為十學處,依布薩支為八學處,此為「在家戒」35。這是比丘戒等四種。

3)(自然、慣行、法性、宿因)如北俱盧洲的人們自然而然不會違犯的為「自然戒」。種族、地方、宗教等各自規定其奉持的條例為「慣行戒」。「阿難,自從菩薩入母胎之後,那菩薩的母親,對於男子便不起愛欲之念,是為法性」36,這樣說菩薩母親的戒為「法性戒」。其次如大迦葉等清淨有情及菩薩在世世生生的戒為「宿因戒」37。這是自然等四種。

4)(第四種四法的說明)(別解脫律儀、根律儀、活命遍淨、資具依止)於第四種四法中,世尊說:「此比丘,以別解脫律儀防護而住,正行與行處具足,對於微細的罪過亦見其怖畏,受持學習諸學處」38,這樣說的戒為「別解脫律儀戒」。

其次:「彼人眼見色已,不取於相,取細相。因為他的眼     16

根若不防護而住,則為貪、憂、諸惡、不善法所侵入,故彼防護而行道,保護眼根,作眼根律儀。如是耳聞聲已……鼻嗅香已、舌覺味已、身觸所觸已,意知法已,不取於相……乃至意根律儀」39,這樣說的為「根律儀戒」。

其次,捨離由於違犯為活命之因而制定的六種學處(所起的邪命)以及(離棄)由詭詐、虛談、現相、瞋罵示相、以利求利等惡法40所起的邪命,為「活命遍淨戒」。

「如理決擇,為防寒冷應用衣服」41的表現,是說清淨決擇而後應用四種資具,故名「資具依止戒」。

現在對這第四種四法的句子次第解釋如下:

1.別解脫律儀戒42

「此」,即於此佛教中。

「比丘」,因為能見輪廻的怖畏,或為穿著截割破布等的意思,所以他得這樣的通稱,即以別解脫律儀防護43由信出家的善男子。

「以別解脫律儀防護」,這裏的別解脫律儀即是學處戒。因為守護者得以解脫及離惡趣等苦,故名「別解脫」。律儀即防護,是依身語的不犯為名。別解脫自己便是律儀,所以名為「別解脫律儀」。以別解脫律儀而防護,為「以別解脫律儀防護」。「防護」是保持及具備的意思。「住」為行止之意。

17             行與行處具足」等意義,當知在聖典中已有敘述。即所

謂:「正行與行處具足」,先說正行,有不正行與正行44。什麼是不正行?由於身的違犯、語的違犯,身語的違犯,是名不正行45。亦可說一切的惡戒為不正行。茲或有人,(為了生活的某種目的)以竹布施、以葉布施,或以花、果、盥洗的粉及齒木等布施,或說諂諛語,或說豆湯語46,或以撫愛(撫愛他人的孩子),或為走使傳訊,或以種種為佛陀所唾棄的不正當的生活手段以營求其生活,都稱為不正行。什麼是正行?身不違犯,語不違犯,身語不違犯,是名正行。亦可說一切的戒律儀為正行,茲或有人,不以竹布施,不以葉、花、果、盥洗之粉及齒木等布施,或不說諂諛語,不說豆湯語,不撫愛,不為走使傳訊,不以種種為佛陀所唾棄的不正當的生活手段以營求其生活,都稱為正行。

次說行處,亦有行處與非行處。什麼是非行處?茲或有人,行於淫女處,或行於寡婦、成年處女、黃門(陰陽男女及宦官)、比丘尼及酒肆之處,或與國王、大臣、外道及外道的弟子等俗人作不適當的交際而住,或與那些對於比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷無信仰、無歡喜、不供泉水(如無水之井不能供給所需)、罵詈讒謗、不欲他們得利益、不欲其適意、不欲其有瑜伽安穩

人相依親近往來者,名非行處。什麼是行處,茲或有人,不   18

行於淫女處,……不行於酒肆之處,不與國王……外道的弟子等俗人作不適當的交際而住,或與那些對於比丘……優婆夷有信仰、歡喜、能供泉水(可以滿足需求的)、愛袈裟的光輝、喜比丘等出入、欲比丘等得利益……欲其有瑜伽安穩的俗人相依親近往來者,名為行處。能夠具足、正具足、達、正達、成就、正成就、圓滿這樣的正行和行處,所以稱為「正行與行處具足」。

其次當知正行與行處具足也可這樣說:即不正行有身語二種。

什麼是身不正行?茲或有人,在僧眾中,不思尊敬長老比丘,揮開他們衝進去立,衝進去坐,在前面立,在前面坐,在高座坐,用衣纏頭而坐,站立說話,揮手說話,諸長老比丘沒有穿履經行,他卻穿履經行,長老在低經行處經行,他在高經行處經行,長老在普通的地上經行,他在經行處經行,或者侵害長老的位置而立,侵佔其座位而坐,又拒絕新學比丘於座位之外,在向火的房中不諮詢長老比丘而自添薪火,關閉門戶,在水浴場上亦衝開長老比丘行下去,先下去,衝進去沐浴,先沐浴,衝上來,先上來,進入村落人家,衝進長老比丘而行,在前行,超越長老比丘的前面去行,在家庭主婦和少女們坐在那裏的秘密隱藏的內室,他突然闖入,觸摸小孩子的頭,是名身不正行。

什麼是語不正行?茲或有人,在僧眾中,不思尊敬長老比丘

19     ,不諮詢而自說法,解答問題,誦波羅提木叉戒,站立話,揮

手說話,進入村落人家對婦人或少女們這樣說:某名某姓門下有些什麼?有粥嗎?有飯嗎?有硬食47嗎?我們有什麼喝的呢?有什麼吃的呢?有什麼吞啖的呢?有什麼東西送給我們嗎?像這樣的拉雜空談,名為語不正行。

其次當知和上面相反的為正行,如有比丘,尊敬順從長上,具有慚愧、整齊莊嚴的穿著(內衣和外衣)、正當的前進、後退、前視、旁視及屈伸其肢體、眼睛下視、威儀具足,掩護六根門頭,飲食知量,常事醒覺,具備正念正知,少欲知足,常勤精進,對於諸等正行完全誠意恭敬尊重而住,是名正行。如是當知先為正行。

其次行處:有近依行處,守護行處,近縛行處48三種。

什麼是近依行處?具足十論事49之德的善友為近依行處。因為依他可以聞所未聞、已聞的更明白,解決疑惑,矯正意見,安息其心,或者跟他學習可以增信,亦得增長戒、聞、捨、慧,故稱近依行處。

什麼是守護行處?茲有比丘,進入村落行於道上,收縮眼界僅見眼前一尋之地,善加防護而行,不見象(兵),不見馬(兵)、車(兵)、步(兵)、婦女、男人,不看上,不看下,不視四方和四維而行,是名守護行處。

什麼是近縛行處?便是約束其心於四念住中。世尊說:「諸比丘!什麼是比丘行處,什麼是你們的世襲傳承?便是四念住」50。是名近縛行處。

這樣的正行和行處具足圓滿,故說「正行與行處具足」。

於微細的罪過亦見其怖畏」,便是對於無意而犯的眾學     20

51及生起不善心等的微細罪過,亦能見其怖畏。

「受持與學習諸學處」,便是對於任何應當學習的學處都正持學習。

這裏,「以別解脫律儀防護」,是依於人而決定為說別解脫律儀的。其次「正行與行處具足」等的一切,都是關於如何圓成行道者的戒,當知是為示行道而說的。

2.根律儀戒52

繼前文之後又說:「彼人眼見色已……」等等,是顯示根律儀戒。

「彼人」,是指堅持別解脫律儀戒的比丘。

「眼見色已」,是由於有見色能力的眼識而見色已的意思。然而古人說:「無心故眼不能見色,無眼故心亦不能見色;當(眼)門與所緣(之境)相接的時候,由於以眼淨色為依止(而起)的心才能見色」。這種說法好像真的為見的原因論,正如有人(說射箭)說「我以弓射」一樣。是故以眼識見色已便是這裏的正確意義。

「不取於相」,便是對於男女相,淨相(可悅相)等而能生起煩惱的一切事相不取著,而止於他真實所見的。

「不取細相」,便是對於能使煩惱顯現而得通名為細相的手、足、微笑、大笑、語、視等種種相不生取著,他僅見其所見的真實部分,猶如住在支提山53的大帝須長老一樣。

據說:長老從支提山來阿*羅陀補羅乞食,有一位良家婦女和她的丈夫爭吵了以後,裝飾得像天女一樣美麗,早晨從阿*羅陀補羅城內出來向她的娘家走去,在中途碰見了長老,生顛倒心

21     ,向他大笑。時長老想:「這是什麼」?於是向她一看(看見

了她的笑口的牙齒),便對她的牙骨部分作不淨想,證得阿羅漢果。於是他說:

看見了她的齒骨,

隨念於以前所修的不淨之想,

長老就站在那裏,

證得了阿羅漢果。

這時,她的丈夫亦從同一路上追尋而來,看見了長老問道:「尊者,你看見什麼婦女嗎?」長老說:

我不知道是男是女,

向這路上走去,

但見一堆骨聚,

行於這平平的大路。

「因為他的眼根若不防護」,是說因為不以念之窗防護眼根及關閉眼門的人,便為貪等法所侵入所繫縛。「彼防護而行道」,是說以念窗關閉他的眼根而行道。若能如是行道者,即名「保護眼根,作眼根律儀」。

僅在眼根中,實無任何律儀或不律儀可說,在眼淨色所依亦無有念或妄念生起。當所緣之色現於眼前之時,經過54有分(識)二次生滅之後,便起了唯作意界的轉向作用,經過一生滅之後,便有眼識的見的作用,自此有異熟意界的領受作用,其次有異熟無因意識界的推度作用,其次有唯作無因意識界的確定作用,經過一生滅之後,便起速行的作用了。這裏在有分,轉向(乃至確定)等的任何作用階段都沒有律儀或不律儀可說。但在速行的剎那,如果生起惡戒,或妄念、無智、無忍、懈怠,便為不律儀。如是發生而說他為眼根不律儀。

以故?因為那時眼門沒有守護了,則有分與轉向等的路線   22

55亦無守護。譬如城市的四門若無守護,雖然城內的家門、倉庫、內室等善加守護,但城中的一切財貨實無保障,因諸盜賊可從城門而入市內恣其所欲而作故。同樣的,如果在速行的階段起了惡戒等,則那時成為不律儀,眼門便無守護,於是有分及轉向等的路線亦無守護了。若在速行時生起戒等,則眼門有了守護,於是有分及轉向等的路線也有了守護。譬如城門若能善加守護,雖然城裡的家門沒有守護,但市內的一切財貨亦善能保障,因為城門緊閉沒有盜賊可以進去了。同樣的,若在速行的階段生起戒等,則眼門有所守護,於是有分及轉向等的路線也有守護了。故在速行的剎那而生起律儀,名為眼根律儀。

「耳聞聲已」等其義亦爾。

如是當知業已略說以廻避取著色等煩惱隨縛相為特相的根律儀戒。

3.活命遍淨戒56

今於根律儀戒之後而說活命遍淨戒。「為活命之因而制定的六種學處」如下:「(一)惡欲者57,為欲所敗者,為活命因及活命原由,實無所得而說得上人法58,犯(第四)波羅夷罪59。(二)為活命因及活命原由而作媒介者,犯(第五)僧殘罪。(三)為活命因而如是公開的說:『住在某精舍中的那位比丘是阿羅漢』,犯偷蘭遮罪(捨墮)。(四)為活命因及活命原由,無病比丘,為了自己而用意令作美味而食者,犯(第三十九)單墮罪。(五)為活命因及活命原由,無病比丘尼,為了自己而用意令作美味而食者,犯(第三)悔過罪。(六)為活命因及活命原

23     由,無病,但為了自己而用意令作湯或飯食者,犯惡作罪」。

這便是制定的六學處。

「詭詐」等,在聖典中這樣解釋:60「什麼是詭詐?即為利養、恭敬、名譽所執著的惡欲者、為欲所敗者,所謂以拒絕資具61,或以迂廻之說,或以威儀的裝束,做作,矯飾,顰眉,蹙額,詭詐,虛偽,欺詐,是名詭詐。

什麼是虛談?即為利養、恭敬、名譽所執著的惡欲者、為欲所敗者,對於他人無問虛談、虛談、極虛談、贊虛談、極贊虛談、纏絡語、極纏絡語、舉說、極舉說、隨愛語、諂諛語、豆湯語、養育狀,是名虛談。

什麼是現相?即為利養、恭敬、名譽所執著的惡欲者、為欲所敗者,對於他人示相、示相業、暗示、暗示業、迂廻談、曲折說,是名現相。

什麼是瞋罵示相?即為利養、恭敬、名譽所執著的惡欲者、為欲所敗者,對於他人怒罵、侮蔑、呵責、冷語、極冷語、嘲笑、極嘲笑、惡口、極惡口、惡宣傳、陰口,是名瞋罵示相。

什麼是以利求利?即為利養、恭敬、名譽所執著的惡欲者、及為欲所敗者,將此處所得之物拿到彼處,或將彼處所得之物拿到此處,如是以(甲)物而希求、貪求、遍求、希望、貪望、遍望於(乙)物,是名以利求利」。

當知這些聖典的文句亦有如下的意義。先釋關於詭詐的一節:「利養恭敬名譽所執著者」,是執著希求於利養恭敬及名譽的

意思。「欲者」,是無道德而欲示其有道德者。「為欲所敗者         24

」,是為欲所擊敗而被征服的意思。此後的拒絕資具、迂廻之說、假肅威儀的三種詭詐之事,因為是來自《大義釋》62,所以現在來顯示此三事也用所謂拒絕資具等開始而加以說明。

有欲以衣服等作布施者,他(比丘)的心裏雖然很想那些東西,但因本於他的惡欲而加以拒絕,等到知道了諸居士業已篤信自己,並且他們屢屢這樣說:「啊!尊者少欲,不欲接受我們的任何東西,如果他能接受一點什麼,實為我們的極大功德」,於是用種種方法去表示為了憐憫他們的願望而接受他拿來的上等的衣服等物。以後便使居士們驚喜,甚至用車輛運東西來供養了。當知是名拒絕資具詭詐事。即如《大義釋》中說:63「什麼稱為拒絕資具詭詐事?今有居士,邀請比丘,以衣服、飲食、住所、醫藥作供養,然彼惡欲者,為欲所敗者,因為欲求更多的衣服……等,所以拒絕接受他們所施的衣服、飲食、住所及醫藥,而且這樣說:『沙門為什麼要用高價衣服?最適合於沙門的是從墳墓、垃圾堆或店前拾集所棄的碎布來作僧伽梨衣穿。沙門為什麼要用上等的飲食?最適合於沙門的是以行乞一團之食來維持其生命。沙門為什麼要用上等的住所?最適合於沙門的是在樹下或露地而住。沙門為什麼要用高貴的醫藥?最適合於沙門的是用牛的尿或一片訶梨勒果64作藥品』。於是他便穿粗糙的衣服,吃粗糙

25     的飲食,用粗糙的住所,受用粗糙的醫藥。使居士們知道了他

這樣說:『此沙門是少欲知足者,隱居者,不與眾雜住者,勤精進者,頭陀行者』。如是他們便常常邀請而供以衣服等受用之物。他便這樣說:『具信善男子,三事現前,必生多福,即有信現前,有所施之物現前,有應施之人現前,具信善男子必生多福。你們便是有信者,並有所施之物在此,又有我是受者。如果我不接受你們的,你們便無福德了。然而我實不需此等東西,但為憐憫你們,只好收受了』。此後則許多衣服、飲食、住所、醫藥也都收受了。誰是這樣顰眉、蹙額、詭詐、虛偽、欺詐的,便是稱為拒絕資具的詭詐事」。

惡欲者為欲表示自己證得上人法,用種種的說法而令人驚喜,稱為迂廻之談的詭詐事。即所謂:65「什麼稱為迂廻之談的詭詐事?今有惡欲者、為欲所敗者,欲求人們恭敬,假依聖人的法語作如是說:『穿這樣衣服的沙門,則為一大有能力者。用這樣的、銅碗、水瓶、濾水囊、鑰、帶、履等的沙門為一大有能力者。有這樣的和尚、阿闍梨,同一和尚同一阿闍梨的朋友、知己、同伴的沙門,為一大有能力者。住這樣的精舍、半邊屋(僅蓋半邊的)、台觀(築於高處而方形的)、大廈(一種長而有上層房室的大廈)、石窟(自然的)、洞穴(人造而有門的)、小屋、重閣、望樓(可瞭望的)、圓屋(多角形的)、長屋(僅有一

堂一門的長屋)、集會所、屋(臨時蓋的房屋或禮堂等)、樹       26

下,則彼沙門實為一大有能力者』。或者此等為惡所染者,屢屢顰蹙、大事欺詐、饒舌不已,故意說些甚深、秘密、微妙、隱微、出世間、空相應的議論,然後連接他的議論而假以口頭恭敬於人說:『這樣的沙門,實已得住禪定』。像這樣顰眉、蹙額、詭詐、虛偽、欺詐的,便稱為迂廻之談的詭詐事」。

其次惡欲者為求恭敬,假以威儀令人驚異,便是假肅威儀詭詐事。即所謂:66「為什麼稱為威儀詭詐事?今有惡欲者、為欲所敗者,為求恭敬,並以為如此做法可能獲得人們的恭敬,便假肅行、住、坐、臥,好像有深切願求(聖果)似的行、住、坐、臥,又好像深入三昧似的行、立、坐、臥,或者故意在人們看見的地方修禪定,像這樣作威儀的裝束,做作、矯飾、顰眉、蹙額、詭詐、虛偽、欺詐,便稱為威儀詭詐事」。

這裏的「稱為拒絕資具」,是所謂拒絕資具或者僅以名為拒絕資具的意思。「迂廻之說」是用近乎說法的意思。「威儀」即四威儀(行住坐臥)。「裝束」是預先的布置或尊重的布置。「做作」是形式的布置。「矯飾」是加以完善布置(裝模作樣)而令人喜樂的狀態。「顰眉」、為了表示他是高度的精勤而故作顰眉之狀及收縮其嘴臉。常作顰蹙的狀態為「蹙額」。「詭詐」為欺騙。詭詐的製造為「虛偽」。作詭詐的狀態為「欺詐」。

對於「虛談」的解釋:「無問虛談」,例如他看見了俗人來到精舍,便如是先作空談:「你為什麼目的到這裏來?邀請比丘

嗎?果這樣,你先回去,我將取鉢隨後而來」;或作自我介紹     27

說:「我名帝須,國王信仰我,某某等大臣也很信仰我」,像這樣的自說,即為無問虛談。「虛談」是被人詢問之後而說像前面這些話。深恐居士們有惡感,屢屢讓他們有說話機會而作巧妙的虛談為「極虛談」。如說「大富者、大船主、大施主」等抬舉的虛談為「贊虛談」。由各方面來作抬舉的虛談為「極贊虛談」。「纏絡語」,如說:「優婆塞啊!上年此時,你曾作嘗新的布施,現在你為什麼不作供施呢?」用這樣的話重重的纏而裹之,直至他這樣的回答:「尊者,我們要供施的,不過未得機會而已。」或者見人手拿甘蔗,便問道:「優婆塞啊!這甘蔗從哪裏拿來的?」「尊者,從甘蔗田裏拿來的。」「那甘蔗是甜的嗎?」「尊者,這要嘗了之後才能知道的。」「然而叫你把甘蔗送給我,這話是不合於比丘說的。」用這種糾纏的話去裹住所欲推辭的人,名為纏絡語。從各方面重重應用纏絡語為「極纏絡語」。如說:「這家人只知道我,如果他們有所布施之物,只有給我的」,像這樣抬舉的表示為「舉說」。特羅根達利迦故事67亦可在這裏解說。從各方面常作抬舉之說為「極舉說」。「隨愛語」,為不願是否契合於理或契合於法,只是說些令人喜愛的話。「諂諛」是卑下的行動,說話時總是把自己放得極低的地位。「豆湯語」,意為像豆湯一樣,譬如煮過的綠豆,有些是不可能煮熟的,其餘的則熟了,同樣的,他說的話,有一部分是真的,其餘的卻是虛妄的,這樣的人稱為豆湯者,他的狀態就像豆湯一樣。「養育

28     狀」,為養育的狀態,他好像家庭的乳母,用腰或背而抱負。

其養育的行為是養育業,其養育的狀態為養育狀。

關於「現相」一節的解釋:「示相」是用身口的動作而促使別人生起以資具供養之想。譬如看見來人手持飲食,便問道:「你得了些什麼可吃的嗎?」以此等暗示的動作而希求所需的為「示相業」。「暗示」,是說些與布施資具有關的話。「暗示業」,好像他看見放犢牛的牧童問道:「這些犢子是母牛的乳犢,還是吸薄酪的犢?」「尊者,它們還是乳犢啦!」「晤!恐怕不是吧?如果它們是乳犢,則比丘亦可獲得其母牛之乳的」,由於這些暗示的動作促使牧童們歸告其父母而供以牛乳。「迂廻談」,是相近之說。這裏當舉一位與一人家很親近的比丘故事以示此意。據說:一位和某人家很親近的比丘,欲求飯食而進入他的家中坐著。主婦看見了他不欲給以飯食而故意地說:「一點米也沒有了啊!」但她裝著要借米的樣子跑到鄰家去了。於是這比丘便入內室去看看,在門角裏發現了一些甘蔗,甕中有砂糖,籃中有一塊鹹乾魚,缸中有米,瓶中有酪,他見了之後依然跑出來坐於原處。未幾,主婦回來說:「沒有借得米啦!」比丘說:「優婆夷,今天我曾見一預兆,知道不能獲得午餐的」。「尊者,怎樣的?」「我曾見一條像那門角裏的甘蔗一樣的蛇,為了要打它,找了一塊像那甕中的砂糖一樣的石頭,當打它時,那蛇鼓脹其頸恰如籃中的鹹乾魚一樣,張口欲去咬那塊石頭而暴露的牙齒恰如那缸中的米一樣,由於它的憤怒而流出的毒液正如那瓶中的乳酪一

樣。」她想:「實在無法欺瞞這禿頭了!」是便給他甘蔗、煮     29

飯、燒魚並給以糖及酪等的一切。作此等相近之說而欲有所得的為「迂廻談」。「曲折說」,老是曲曲折折的盤繞而說,直至獲得他所需求的為止。

對於「瞋罵示相」68一節的解釋:「怒罵」即以十種怒罵事69而怒罵。「侮蔑」即說輕蔑侮辱的話。「呵責」為舉人的過失而叫他「不信者、不信樂者」等語。「冷語」,如說「不要在這裏說這話」等的冷語。從各方面舉出根據及理由而冷言之為「極冷語」。或者看見不肯布施的人說「施主呀!」等的冷言為「冷語」。若說「大施主呀!」等的極冷之言為「極冷語」。「什麼是此人的生命?他是食種子者」,如是譏笑於人為「嘲笑」。「你說此人不肯布施嗎?他時常能送給你一句『沒有』的」,如此極度譏諷人家為「極嘲笑」。公開罵人為吝嗇者或無可贊美者是「惡口」。從各方面而惡口者為「極惡口」。「惡宣傳」,他以為『別人將會恐怖我的惡批評而布施我的』,於是從家至家,從村至村,從地方至地方的從事惡宣傳。「陰口」,意為當面給以甜言蜜語,背後則惡意詆毀,猶如不見其面時,便吃他的背肉,故名陰口。此等名為「瞋罵示相」,因為他刮去別人的善德,像用一竹片刮去身上所塗的膏藥一樣,或如搗碎各種香料而求取香味,他以搗碎他人的善德而求取利益,故名瞋罵示相。

對於「以利求利」70一節的解釋:「求」是追尋之意。「從此處所得之物」,意為從此戶人家所得的東西。「彼處」,指那戶人家而言。「希求」為欲求。「貪求」為追求。「遍求」為再

30     再追求。這裏當提及某一比丘的故事:他從最初的家獲得所施

的食物,分送給這裏那裏的人家的孩子們,終於獲得了乳粥而去。希望,即希求等的同義語,如是則希求為「希望」,貪求為「貪望」,遍求為「遍望」。

這便是詭詐等的意義。

現在來說「等惡法」71:這裏的「等」字,即「或有沙門、婆羅門、彼等食信施食,依然用下賤的伎倆而生活於不正的生活中,如相手、占卜預兆、談天地變易、占夢、看相、占鼠咬破布、火供、匙的獻供」等,如《梵網經》72中所包攝的種種惡法。

如是由於違犯為活命之因而制定的六學處(的生活)及以詭詐、虛談、現相、瞋罵示相、以利求利等諸惡法所維持的生活為邪命,若能離此諸種邪命,即名活命遍淨戒。

再來解釋(活命遍淨的)語義:依此來生活為「活命」。那是什麼?即努力尋求於資具。「遍淨」為遍達於淨性。遍淨的生活為「活命遍淨」。

4.資具依止戒73

此後(如理決擇,受用衣服,僅為防護寒熱,防護虻、蚊、風、炎、爬行類之觸,僅為遮蔽羞部。如理決擇,受用團食,不為嬉戲,不為驕慢,不為裝飾,不為莊嚴,僅為此身住續維持,為止害,為助梵行,如是思惟:「我乃以此令滅舊受(之苦),不起新受(之苦);我將存命、無過、安住」。如理決擇,受用床座,僅為防護寒熱,防護虻、蚊、風、炎、爬行類之觸,僅為避免季候之危,而好獨坐(禪思)之樂。如理決擇,受用醫藥資具,僅為防護生病惱受,而至究竟無苦而已74。)是說資具依止戒。

(一、衣服)「如理決擇」,是知道以方便之道去決擇、善知觀察之意。這裏所提示的「為防寒冷」等的觀察,便是如理決

31     擇。「衣服」是指內衣等75的任何一種。「受用」是指受用、穿 

著和著用。「僅」表示區限目的之辭,修行者使用衣服的目的,僅限於防護寒冷等,別無他意。「寒」是由自身內界的擾亂(內四大不調)或由外界氣候變化所起的任何一種寒冷。「防護」即防止,意為除去寒冷而使身體不生疾病;因為寒冷侵害其身,則內心散亂,不能如理精勤,故世尊聽許使用衣服以防護寒冷。這種說法亦可通用下面各句(此後只說明其不同之處)。「熱」為火熱,如森林著火等所生的熱。「虻蚊風炎爬行類之觸」。這裏的「虻」是嚙蠅和盲蠅。「蚊」即蚊子。「風」是有塵及無塵等類的風。「炎」是陽光的炎熱。「爬行類」即蛇等匍匐而行的長蟲。「觸」有嚙觸及接觸二種。若披衣而坐者則不受此等之害,在這種情形下,故為防護彼等而受用衣服。

其次更提「僅」字,是再決定區限使用衣服的目的,遮蔽羞部是使用衣服的決定目的,其他的目的是有時間性的。「羞部」是他們(男女)的隱秘之處,因為暴露此等部分,則擾亂及破壞於羞恥,以其能亂羞恥,故名羞部。其羞部的遮蔽為遮蔽羞部,有些地方亦作遮蔽於羞部。

(二、食物)「團食」即指各種食物。由於彼比丘的行乞而一團一團的落在鉢內的各種食物為團食,或一團團的降落故為團食,即指從各處所受的施食。「不為嬉戲」76,不像鄉村的孩子那樣專為嬉戲遊玩。「不為驕慢」,不像拳師和力士等那樣為的

32     驕態,亦即不為勇力的驕態及強壯的驕態。「為裝飾」,不像

宮女、妓女等為的需要裝飾,需要其肢體的豐滿艷麗,「不為莊嚴」,不像優人舞女那樣為著皮膚的色澤光潤美麗。進一層說,「不為嬉戲」,是捨斷痴的近因。「不為驕慢」,是捨斷瞋的近因。「不為裝飾,不為莊嚴」,是捨斷貪欲的近因。又「不為嬉戲,不為驕慢」,是阻止生起自己的結纏。「不為裝飾,不為莊嚴」,是阻止他人的結纏生起。這四句亦可說為棄捨沉溺於欲樂及不如理的行道。

更提「僅」字之意已如前說。「此身」,即此四大種(地水火風)所成的色身。「住續」,是使其繼續存在之意。「維持」77是不斷的活動或長時存續之意。因彼(比丘)受用食物以住續及維持其身體,猶如老屋之主(以支柱)支持其屋,或如車主塗油於車軸一樣,並非為嬉戲,為驕慢,為裝飾,為莊嚴的。且住續與命根同義,所以為此身住續維持,亦可以說為使此身的命根繼續存在。「為止害」,這裏的「害」是為飢餓所惱害。比丘受用食物以除飢餓,猶如敷藥於瘡傷之處和對治寒暑等一樣。「為助梵行」,是為助益全佛教的梵行及道的梵行。於是行道者之受用食物,是為借助體力而勤修於三學(戒定慧),以渡有的沙漠,或者為了勤修梵行而受用食物,猶如為渡沙漠(絕糧)的人而食其子之肉,如渡河者以筏,渡海者用船一樣。

「我乃以此令滅舊受,不起新受」78,是說他這樣想:「我

現在受用這種食物,令除滅舊受的飢餓之苦,並不由於無限的   33

食下去而生起新的苦受,不像食之過多而借助他人之手拉他起立,食之鼓腹以致不能穿衣,食之過多而跌臥在那裏,食之充滿至頸能為烏鴉啄取,食至嘔吐而猶食的任何一種婆羅門那樣,我實如病者用藥一樣。」或者現在因不適當及無限量的飲食所生起的苦痛是由於宿業之緣,故稱「舊受」;我今以適當及適量之食,滅彼舊受之緣,而除舊受之苦。由於現在作不適當受用所積聚的業,將產生未來的新受之苦,故名「新受」;我今以適當的受用,則新受的根本不再生起,而新受的苦痛也不生了。當知這也是這裏的意思。以上二句是顯示採取適當的受用,捨斷沉溺於苦行,不離於法樂。

「我將存命」79,是他在受用食物之時作如是想:以有益適量的受用,則無斷絕命根及破壞威儀的危險,所以我的身體將依食物而生存,猶如長病之人而受用醫藥一樣。

「無過,安住」,由於避去不適當的遍求領取及食用故「無過」;由於適量的食用故「安住」。或無因不適當及無限量的食緣而發生的不愉快、欲睡、呵欠伸腰、為識者所呵責等的過失為「無過」;由於適當適量的食緣而增長其身力為「安住」。或者避免隨其意欲而食之滿腹,或棄橫臥之樂、輾轉側臥之樂、睡眠之樂等為「無過」;由於少食四五口(不過飽),使四威儀相應而行道為「安住」。故我受用食物。正如這樣說:

少食四五口,    汝即當飲水,

勤修習比丘,    實足以安住。80

34     (存命、無過、安住三句)是說明中道為(食的)根本目的。

(三、床座)「床座」,即臥所與坐處。無論在精舍或半邊檐的蓋屋中所臥的地方為臥所;無論什麼座席為坐處。把它們合成一起而說為床座。「為避季候之危,而好獨坐(禪思)之樂」,以氣候而有危險故為季候之危,為除去氣候的危險及好獨坐(禪思)的快樂,當以受用床座而得消除能使身體害病心地散亂的不適當的氣候,故說為除季候之危及好獨坐(禪思)之樂。雖然為避季候之危,即指除去寒冷等而言,但前面衣服的受用,是以遮蔽羞部為主要目的,為防寒暑等僅為某些時間而已,可是受用床座是以避免季候的危險為主要目的。季候之意已如前說。危險有顯明和隱匿的二種:獅子猛虎等為顯明的危險,貪瞋等為隱匿的危險。若無守護(如住樹下等而有顯危)及見不適當的色等(有隱險),則未免危害,而彼比丘既知如是觀察而受用床座,此乃如理決擇……為避季候之危而受用。

(四、醫藥)「醫藥」(病者的資具藥品),這裏的資具是治病之義,亦即與適合同義。由醫生的工作所配合的為藥。病人的資具即藥,故病者的資具藥,即指醫生所配合的任何適用於病人的油蜜砂糖等而言。其次品字,在「以七種城市的戒備而善防護」81等的意義中,則作防備說。又在

「此車有戒的莊嚴,

有定的軸勤的輪」82

的意義中,則作莊嚴說。又在「出家者當集此等生活的資具」   35

83等的意義中,則作必需品說。在本文中,當取必需品和防備之義。以病者所需的藥為防備生命,因為是保護其生命不給以生病滅亡的機會之故。同時以必需品得能長期生活,故說為防備。如是以病者所需的藥和防備品,說為病者的資具藥品。病者的資具藥品(醫藥)即指醫生為病者所配合的任何適用的油蜜砂糖等而防備其生命者。

「生」為生長或發生之意。「病惱」,惱是四界的變動(四大不調),因為從界的變化而生起疥癩發腫膿疱等,故稱病惱。「受」是苦受,即不善異熟受,而為病惱受。「至究竟無苦」,即至究竟不苦,是為直至斷除一切病苦(而受用醫藥)之意。

如是簡要的如理決擇受用資具的特相,即為資具依止戒。其(資具依止的)語義如次:因為人類的來去活動是依賴於受用衣服等,故名資具。依止於資具,故稱資具依止。

(雜論四遍淨戒)

(一、別解脫律儀戒的成就)如是在四種戒中的別解脫律儀,須依於信而成就。由信而成,因為制定學處是超越於聲聞之權限的,如佛曾拒絕其弟子(關於制戒)的請求84,可為這裏的例證。所以全部佛制的學處必須由信而受持,甚至不顧其生命而善成就之。即所謂:

36                     雞雞鳥護卵,犛牛愛尾,

如人愛子,保護他的獨眼。

非常的謹慎與尊重,

護戒也是這樣的。85

他處又說:86「大王啊!我為聲聞制定的學處,我的聲聞弟子們縱有生命之危亦不犯」。在這裏,當知在森林中為盜賊所捆縛的故事:據說在(雪山邊的)摩訶跋多尼87森林中,有一長老為盜賊用黑藤縛住,放倒地上,那長老便倒在那裏七天,增長他的毗鉢舍那(觀),得證阿那含果,並在那裏命終,得生梵天。

另一位在銅鍱洲88的長老,為盜賊用蔓草縛住,放倒地上,恰遇林火燒來,未斷蔓草時,便起毗鉢舍那,得證等首89阿羅漢果而入涅槃。後來長部誦者無畏長老90和五百比丘來到這裏看見了,才把他的身體荼毗(火葬)了,並建塔廟供養。所以另一位具信的善男子說:

寧失身命,要使別解脫清淨,

不破世界主所制的戒律儀。

(二、根律儀戒的成就)正如別解脫律儀的依於信,而根律儀則依於念而成就。依念而成,因為由於念的堅定,則諸根不為貪欲等所侵襲。故說:91「諸比丘!寧為燃燒熱烈輝焰的鐵棒而觸其眼根,亦不於眼所識的諸色而執取其(男女淨等的)細相」,這是說善須憶念燃燒的教理,而善成就其根律儀戒,以不妄念去制止依於眼門等所起的(速行)識對於色等境界而執取於(男

女等淨)相,為貪欲所侵襲。而(根律儀戒)若不如是成就,   37

則別解脫律儀戒亦不能長時存在,猶如沒有留意築以柵圍的穀田(將為畜等所侵害)一樣。又如敞開大門的村落,隨時可為盜賊所襲,若無根律儀戒,則亦隨時可為煩惱賊所害。亦如不善蓋的屋為雨漏所侵,而他的心則為貪欲所侵入。所以這樣說:

對於色聲味香觸,

當護你的一切根。

若對色等門開而不護,

譬如盜劫村落而為害。

譬如惡蓋屋,必為雨漏侵,

如是不修心,將為貪欲侵。92

假使根律儀戒成就,則別解脫律儀戒亦能長時受持,猶如善築柵圍的穀田一樣。又如善護大門的村落,則不為盜賊所劫,而他亦不為煩惱賊所害。亦如善蓋的屋,不為雨漏所侵,而他的心則不為貪欲所侵入。所以這樣說:

對於色聲味香觸,

當護你的一切根。

若對色等門閉而善護,

譬如盜賊無害於村落。

譬如善蓋屋,不為雨漏侵,

如是善修心,不為貪欲侵。93

這是最殊勝的教法。心是這樣迅速的奔馳,所以必須以不淨

38     作意而斷已起的貪欲,使根律儀成就。猶如新出家婆耆舍長老

一樣。據說新出家的婆耆舍長老,正在行乞之際,看見了一位婦人,生起貪欲之心。於是他對阿難長老說:

我為貪欲燃燒了,

我的心整個地燒起來了。94

瞿曇啊,哀愍我吧!

為說良善的消滅法。95

阿難長老答道:

你的心燒,因為想的顛倒,

應該捨棄和貪欲相關的淨相,

當於不淨善定一境而修心,

見諸行是他、是苦、是非(無)我,

消滅你的大貪欲,

切莫再再的燃燒了!

(婆耆舍)長老即除去貪欲而行乞。其次比丘應當完成其根律儀戒,猶如住在喬羅達格大窟96的心護長老及住在拘羅格大寺的大友長老。

據說:在喬羅達格大窟中有七佛出家的繪畫,非常精美。一次,有很多比丘參觀此窟,見了繪畫說:「尊者,這畫很精美」。長老說:「諸師!我住此窟已六十多年,尚不知有此畫,今天由諸具眼者所說,才得知道。」這是說長老雖在這裏住這麼久,但從未張開眼睛而望窟上。據說在大窟的入口處,有一株大龍樹,他亦一向未曾仰首上望,但每年見其花瓣落於地上,而藉知其開花而已。當時國王慕長老之德,曾三度遣使請他入宮受供養,但都遭拒絕了。於是國王便令王城內乳哺小兒的小婦們的乳房都捆縛起來,加以蓋印封鎖。他說:「直待長老來此,一切乳兒才

得吸乳。」老因憐憫乳兒,遂來大村97。國王聞此消息,便對   39

其臣子說:「去請長老入宮,我要從他受三皈五戒。」長老入宮,國王禮拜和供養之後說:「尊者!今天很忙,沒有機會,我將於明天受戒」,並取長老的鉢,和王后共同略送一程,然後拜別。但當國王或王后禮拜時,他同樣的說:「祝大王幸福!」這樣過了七天,其他的比丘問長老道:「尊者,你在國王禮拜時說,祝大王幸福,為什麼王后禮拜時也說同樣的句子?」長老答道:「我並沒有分別誰是國王,誰是王后。」過了七天,國王想道:「何必使長老住在這裏受苦呢?」便讓他回去。長老回到喬羅達格大窟後,夜間在經行處經行,那住在大龍樹的天神執一火炬站於一邊,使他的業處(定境)極淨而明顯。長老心生喜悅,想道:「怎麼我的業處今天這樣異常的明顯?」過了中夜之後,全山震動,便證阿羅漢果。是故欲求利益的其他善男子亦當如是: